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Animal Systems. Feeding and Digestion Respiration Circulation Excretion. Feeding and digestion. How does digestion occur? How are mouthparts adapted for different diets?. Ways of obtaining food.

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animal systems

Animal Systems

Feeding and Digestion

Respiration

Circulation

Excretion

feeding and digestion
Feeding and digestion

How does digestion occur?

How are mouthparts adapted for different diets?

ways of obtaining food
Ways of obtaining food
  • Filter Feeders- Catch algae and small animals by using modified gills, or other structures as a net to filter food items out of the water.
    • Ex. Sponges, Barnacles, Whales
  • Detrivores- Feed off of decaying organic matter.
    • Ex. Earthworms
  • Carnivores- Consuming other living organisms.
    • Ex. Whales, Spiders, Lions
  • Herbivores- Consuming plants, or parts of trees for energy.
    • Ex. Birds, Sea Slug
  • Parasitism- Dependence on another animal for energy
    • Ex. Flatworms, Roundworms
processing food
Processing Food
  • A digestive tract has two openings, one to ingest food, and one to expel wastes.
  • Digestion begins in the mouth.
    • Mechanical Digestion
      • How are carnivores teeth different from herbivores?
    • Chemical Digestion
      • In humans we start breaking down complex sugars in the mouth, using salivary amylase
digestion
Digestion
  • Carnivores typically have short digestive tracts that produce fast acting meat digesting enzymes
  • No animal produces digestive enzymes that are able to break down the cellulose in plant tissues
    • Herbivores have very long intestines with specialized pouches, some containing symbiotic bacteria that digest cellulose
    • Ex. Cows, have an extension in their esophagus called a Rumen, it regurgitates food that has been digested there, where the animal chews it again and re-swallows it. “chewing the cud”
human digestive system
Human Digestive System

Why do we need to eat?

What nutrients does your body need?

What is a balanced diet?

energy
Energy

Food contains energy our body needs to carry out its functions

Laboratories measure the calories (energy) found in food by heating it up

A calorie (lower case c) is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree Celsius

A dietary Calorie is equal to 1000 “calories”

nutrients
Nutrients

There are about 45 substances found in food that your body does not make itself, therefore we need to consume it somehow.

Water, the body needs water to carry out cell processes, it makes up most of your blood, and extracellular fluid.

Water is lost even when we breath

On hot days we need to drink more fluids than normally to replace those lost through sweat.

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

Found in many things you wouldn’t think

Carbs are in the sugars found in fruits, grains, potatoes, milk

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Fats

Usually people associate fat in their diet as a bad thing, but we actually need it

If you don’t get enough you may not be able to absorb some essential vitamins found in foods

Organs wouldn’t be insulated

proteins
Proteins

Supply minerals for growth and repair