An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of...
Download
1 / 47

Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on

An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain. Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West. Slide background: http://sensicology.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/lamprey.jpg.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West' - kylee-bennett


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West

Slide background: http://sensicology.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/lamprey.jpg


Table of contents
Table of Contents 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

  • Introduction to include problem statement and objectives

  • Background of sea lamprey in lake Champlain and life cycle

  • Are sea lamprey native?

  • Sea lamprey affect of sport fishery

  • TFM and application

  • Non target effects of TFM

  • Cost-benefit analysis

  • Recommendations/questions


Problem statement
Problem Statement 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

The lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol, (TFM) is a controversial chemical used for controlling sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Champlain watershed.


Objectives
Objectives 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

  • To determine the chemical effects of TFM on sea lamprey and its corresponding aquatic environments

  • To investigate the nativity of sea lamprey, and how a potential native status would affect public opinion of the sea lamprey control program

  • To evaluate the effect of sea lamprey on sport-fish species in Lake Champlain

  • To understand the effects of TFM on non-target species

  • To analyze the cost-benefit ratio of using TFM in the Lake Champlain Basin


Background
Background 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

  • Sea lamprey are parasites preying on cold water fish species

  • Brown trout, Lake trout and Landlocked Salmon

  • Fish will eventually die from excessive bleeding or infection

Source: NY DEC


Sea lamprey life cycle
Sea Lamprey Life Cycle 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

TFM targets juvenile sea lamprey within streams

Majority of life cycle is spent as larvae/transformers (3-7 years)

Mature adults reenter streams to lay eggs

NY DEC


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain
Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain? 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

  • For years, the general scientific consensus was that sea lamprey were an invasive species.

  • The first confirmed identification was in 1930, long after canals were constructed in the mid- 19th century.

  • Invasion aided by the Champlain canal to the Hudson River and/or the Chambly canal to the Richelieu River.

  • Natural dispersal still possible before canal construction, through the Richelieu River.

  • To determine the status of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain, genetic studies were conducted


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain1
Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain? 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

  • Waldman et al. (2006) analyzed mitochondrial DNA from individuals from the Atlantic, lakes Champlain, Ontario, and Superior.

  • Champlain population were genetically distinct from the other sampled populations.

  • Atlantic and Champlain populations were most closely related, but each gene pool had unique haplotypes, suggesting that enough time had passed for the Champlain gene pool to drift.


Genetic distances between sea lamprey collections from neighboring water bodies
Genetic distances 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain between sea lamprey collections from neighboring water bodies

Source: Waldman et al. 2006


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain2
Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain? 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

  • Bryan et al. (2005) conducted a microsattelite DNA analysis

  • Concluded that the differences in genotypes between Atlantic and Champlain populations were far greater than what could have developed since the construction of the canals.

  • Bryan et al. (2005), as well as other studies (Marsden et al. 2003 and Waldman et al. 2006), hypothesized that the sudden population explosion in the mid-20th century was due anthropomorphic alterations to the lake.

  • Bryan et al. (2005) also hypothesized that the first sighting was so recent due to the population being regulated by predators prior to removal in the 20th century.


Genetic distances between several sea lamprey populations in the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

Source: Bryan et al. 2005


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain3
Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain? the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • These findings provide substantial genetic evidence that the Lake Champlain population is native, but do not settle the debate

  • Many parties still feel that the abundance of man-made entry points and the lack of sightings before the population increased in the lake point to the species as invasive.

  • Even if the species is native, many stakeholders find the species a nuisance as it effects valuable sport fisheries in the lake.

  • Though population suppression will probably continue, these findings may shift stakeholder and managerial opinions on the extent of the suppression.

  • This shift needs to be accounted for in long-term treatment plans


Sea lamprey affect on fish
Sea Lamprey Affect on Fish the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Attach host fish , drain bodily fluids, killing the fish

  • Studies in Great Lakes show fish wounded by sea lamprey have a 40-60% mortality rate

  • Preferred hosts: landlocked Atlantic salmon and lake trout

  • Also feed on lake whitefish, walleye, northern pike, burbot and lake sturgeon

  • Problem: Many of these fish species are 1) native to Lake Champlain 2) highly prized sport fish


Lake champlain fishery
Lake Champlain Fishery the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  •  Currently: angling of sport fish

  • Most popular species being walleye, yellow perch, basses, and pikes

  • Popular stocked sport fish: Lake trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon and brown trout


Sea lamprey affect on sport fish
Sea Lamprey Affect on Sport Fish the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Study conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife comparing pre and post experimental control of sea lamprey

  • Examined gill net catch rates and wounding data from the mid 1980’s (prior treatment) for the Main Lake portion of Lake Champlain, Lake Ontario and Cayuga Lake.


Lake champlain main lake
Lake Champlain: Main Lake the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

Source: State of the Lake Report, Lake Champlain Basin Program 2008


Lake ontario
Lake Ontario the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

Source: http://www.classicbuffalo.com/images/outdoors/LakeOntarioMap.jpg


Cayuga lake finger lake in ny
Cayuga Lake, Finger the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic. Lake in NY

Source: http://www.byways.org/explore/byways/57183/travel.html


Study pretreatment results
Study: Pretreatment Results the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • 1974-1984: Total incident of attack (including wounds and scars) for all size trout averaged 85%, wounding rate averaged 50%.

    • lake trout 13-16.9 inches: wounding rate of 20%

    • lake trout 25-28.9 inches: wounding rate of 50%


Study pretreatment results1
Study: Pretreatment Results the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Gill net catch rates indicated

    • 6-13 lake trout/1000 feet of net in Lake Champlain

    • 60-70 lake trout/1000 feet of net in Lake Ontario

    • 45-66 lake trout/ 1000 feet of net in Cayuga Lake

  • Stocking rates:

    • Lake Champlain: 1.6 yearling lake trout/acre

    • Cayuga Lake: 1.7 yearling lake trout/acre

    • Lake Ontario: 0.5 yearling lake trout/acre

  • low catch rate for Lake Champlain in comparison to stocking rate of lake trout


Sea lamprey affect on sport fish1
Sea Lamprey Affect on Sport Fish the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Results of study indicated that sea lamprey were negatively effecting the lake trout and Atlantic salmon populations

  • Lead to an 8 year experimental control program that examined the effectiveness of lampricide treatments at reducing sea lamprey populations

    • Began in 1990


Experimental control program
Experimental Control Program the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • As part of the program a pre and post treatment creel survey was conducted

    • found an estimated 76% increase in lake trout caught in Lake Champlain


Long term control program
Long-term Control Program the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Began in 2002

    • Involved: Treating 13 tributaries with TFM and 5 tributary deltas with Bayer 73

  • Goal: Reduce the number of wounding rates by sea lamprey to

    • > 25/100 lake trout

    • 15/ 100 Atlantic salmon.


Current sea lamprey levels
Current sea lamprey levels the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • 2006: highest sea lamprey wound rate was observed in 2006 with 100 wounds/100 lake trout

  • 2007: sea lamprey populations in 18 out of 31 streams and 2 out of 4 deltas being controlled

  • 2007: 46 wounds/100 lake trout and

  • 2008: 31 wounds/ 100 lake


The number the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.of Atlantic salmon and lake trout in Lake Champlain with wounds (both scar and actual) from sea lamprey

Source: : Lake Champlain Basin Program; State of the Lake Report 2008


Historical use of tfm
Historical Use of TFM the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • 1950’s 6,000 possible chemicals tested at Hammond Bay Biological Station

  • Chose: 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol and Bayluscide (5,2’-dicholoro-4’nirosalicylanilide)

  • Criteria for selection: maximize lamprey kills and minimize fish kills

  • Regulated by the EPA


Chemical composition of tfm
Chemical Composition of TFM the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Non-volatile

  • Organic matter increases biotic break-down in sediment

    • Most tests show breakdown to

      undetectable levels to occur

      within hours and at most days

www.fluoridealert.org


Concentration of tfm vascular plants and sediment
Concentration of TFM, vascular plants and sediment the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

(Hubert, 2003)


Ph and toxicity
pH and Toxicity the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • pH affects toxicity

  • As pH decreases (becomes more acidic) half life increases

  • Toxicity is higher at lower pH


Lc 50 and ph
LC 50 and pH the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

(Hubert, 2003)


How most organisms deal with tfm
How Most Organisms deal with TFM the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Most organisms able to reduce TFM into RTFM (4-amino-3-trifluoromethylphenol)’

    • Nontoxic, stable compound-

    • Glucuronidation: metabolic detoxifying process of the liver

    • Major enzyme in breakdown: UDPGT- relatively inactive in sea lamprey as compared to other aquatic species


How tfm works in sea lamprey
How TFM Works in Sea Lamprey the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Disrupts ATP production- Remember UDPGT isn’t binding to it and breaking it down

  • Causes Mortality by: depleting PCr (mechanism unknown)

    • Forces anaerobic glycolysis to continue ATP production

  • Lamprey are unable to

    detoxify the chemical

    before brain is sufficiently

    depleted of glucose=Death


Atp concentration and pcr depletion after 12 hrs of exposure
ATP concentration and PCr depletion after 12 hrs of exposure the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

Wilkie et al., 2007


Application pre treatment
Application: Pre-Treatment the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Determine areas of spawning that will have high density of larval sea lamprey at time of treatment

  • Notification of residents- regular advisories prior to application

  • Regular water testing (pH, alkalinity etc.)


Application treatment
Application: Treatment the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Solution pumped through perforated hose

  • 12hr exposure

  • Use with niclosamide- spot treatment

  • Boosts

  • Monitor rivers and lakes until TFM is undetectable


Tfm application source www dec ny gov
TFM application the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.Source: www.dec.ny.gov/


Non target effects
Non-target Effects the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Was determined in 1960’s as less environmentally detrimental than physical means of removing lamprey

    • Even though the chemical mechanisms were not understood


Non target organisms
Non-target Organisms the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Lake Sturgeon http://www.tnaqua.org/Newsroom/Images/sturgeon.jpg


Catfish family http www statesymbolsusa org images missouri channel catfishwiki2 jpg
Catfish Family the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/IMAGES/Missouri/channel_catfishWiki2.jpg


Mudpuppies the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/animals/images/primary/mudpuppy.jpg


How is sensitivity determined
How is sensitivity determined the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • MLC = Minimum Lethal Concentration

  • Compare MLC of TFM on lamprey to other fish species

  • Example:

    • Lake Sturgeon has TFM MLC of 1-2 times that of Lamprey

    • Catfish TFM MLC 1.3-1.5 times


Problems for non target species
Problems for Non-target Species the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • TFM is often over-applied to increase lamprey mortality, thus TFM concentration reaches MLC for other non-target species

  • Not enough information available about effects on other non-target species, especially invertebrates


Case study mudpuppy die off in lamoille river
Case Study: Mudpuppy Die-off in Lamoille River the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Over-use of TFM in Lamoille River lead to mass die-off of mudpuppies in Fall 2009

  • http://www.timesargus.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=BT&Date=20091009&Category=NEWS02&ArtNo=910090322&Ref=AR&Profile=1003&MaxH=290&MaxW=445

  • Reported by Times

    Argus (Rutland, VT)

    on October 9, 2009


Cost benefit analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Analysis indicated a 3.5 – 1 ratio indicating that TFM is successful

  • Sea lamprey control benefits of $29.4 million – cost of treatment $8.4 million

  • Difficult to place monetary values on the environment

  • However…

  • Adaptation resulting in quicker time to reach transformer stages (Zerrenner and Marsden)

  • Increased treatments resulting in higher economic funding, may alter analysis


Conclusions
Conclusions the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Continue use of TFM, partnered with increased environmental monitoring

  • More precise application, to reduce fatality of non-target species

  • Further research on TFM chemical mechanisms, to see if modifications can be made

  • Further research on effects of TFM on non-target species


Videos
Videos the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

  • Lampricide added to Lamoille River

  • Same treatment that caused mass mud puppy die-off

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=81wCa2zduBM

  •  PSA on Lamprey

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-KJZ22-wTQ


Sources
Sources the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

Bryan, M. B., Zalinski, D., Filcek, K. B., Libants, S., Li, W., & Scribner, K. T. (2005). Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes. Molecular Ecology, 14, 3757-3773. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Web of Science database.

Waldman, J. R., Grunwald, C., & Wirgin, I. (2006). Evaluation of the Native Status of Sea Lampreys in Lake Champlain Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing Analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135, 1076-1085. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Web of Science database

Hubert, T.D. 2003. Environmental Fate and Effects of the Lampricide TFM: a Review. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 29(supplement 1):456-474.

Wilkie, M.P., Holmes, J.A., and Youson, J.H. 2007. The Lampricide3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) interferes with intermediary metabolism and glucose homeostasis but not with ion balance, in larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.. 64: 1172-1182

McDonald, G.D., & Kolar, C.S. (2007). Research Guide to the Use of Lampricides for Controlling Sea Lamprey. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33(2), 20-34.

Brege, D.C., Davis, D.M., Genovese, J.H., McAuley, T. C., Stephens, B. E., & Westman, R.W. (2003). Factors responsible for the reduction in quantity of the ampricide, TFM, applied annually in streams tributary to the Great Lakes from 1979 to 1999. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 500-509

Waller, Diane L., Bills, Terry D., Boogaard, Michael A., Johnson, David A., & Doolittle, T.C.J. (2003). Effects of Lampricide Exposure on the Survival, Growth, and Behavior of the Unionid Mussels Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 524-551.


ad