Transition to GraduateSchool Session 2 Trinity (Washington) University
Welcome to Trinity! Session 2 Transition to Graduate School
Topics for Today • Academic honesty & plagiarism • APA Documentation Style
What is plagiarism? Turn to a neighbor and discuss. Try to come up with a definition.
“Plagiarism is the act of taking someone else’s ideas, words, research, or other intellectual or artistic work and presenting it as if they were your own (Trinity, 2005).”Trinity University (2005).Academic honesty, plagiarism, and the honor system: A handbook for students. p. 2.
Conventions of Academic Writing • For ANY and EVERY idea that you didn’t make up yourself you have to give credit to the originator of the idea • There must be an attribution (that is, a citation) showing where it came from • … unless it is general knowledge
Example from a journal article The example of academic writing on the next slide was found in Dix, S. (2006). I’ll do it my way: Three writers and their revision practices. The Reading Teacher 59, 566-573.
The ability to revise is significant because it helps the writer reflect and clarify his or her thinking with the goal of improving the writing (Calkins, 1991; Corden, 2001; Dix, 2003a; Fitzgerald, 1987, 1988; Graves, 1979, 1983; Murray, 1978). These are citations of articles and books that originated the idea
Examples of Plagiarism Turn to a neighbor and discuss. Try to come up with three examples of plagiarism.
A student includes part of a book review found at Amazon.com in a paper with no attribution YES
A student used the exact words found in a book by Robert Coles. There were quotation marks around the quote, and the book was listed in the reference list. YES In a paper about the moral development of children,
Plagiarism can be INADVERTENT As well as deliberate
A student says that education in the United States has historically been a matter of local government NO In a paper about current education initiatives
The fact thatcontrol of education in the U.S. is local is common knowledge
How do I know if something is “common knowledge”?Especially if I didn’t already know it
Common Knowledge • You find the same information without documentation in 5 sources • It is information that a reasonably educated person will already know • A person could easily find the information in general reference sources (Trinity, 2005)
And • Standard information such as historical dates • Folk literature • Commonsense observations, Ex. siblings will argue over little things (Fowler, H.R, Aaron, J.E., & Limburg, K., 1992)
The student cuts and pastes into the paper from sources found on the internet --no documentation or original writing YES In a paper comparing two theories of human development
A student builds on ideas obtained from interviews with principals, but does not acknowledge the individuals in the paper. YES In a paper about management styles
YIPES! That’s a lot of ways to plagiarize.
Paraphrasing You must provide documentation for the source of all paraphrases
Paraphrasing • Must be done correctly • Just changing a few words DOES NOT • turn a quotation into your own work
Examples of acceptable and unacceptable paraphrases can be found in the Academic Honesty . . . Handbook http://www.trinitydc.edu/academics/acadaff/policy.php
If the ideas OR CHOICE OF WORDS did not originate with you You must give credit to the source
When in doubt . . . DOCUMENT
Submitting the same paper or project for two different classes-- unless you have permission in advance from both instructors-- is contrary to the culture and ethics of academia.
When an instructor requests original work, you cannot use a paper, lesson plan, case study, etc. • Found on the internet • Created by a friend or family member • Provided by your school district • Found in a book or article
What is APA? A documentation style
Every profession has a particular way of showing where (documenting) ideas come from. English, Languages MLA (Modern Language Association) History, Philosophy Chicago (Chicago Manual of Style) Education, Psychology APA (American Psychological Association) Documentation Styles
Why? Provides Consistency
A documentation style has rules for • Showing the sources of ideas in a paper • Compiling a reference list • Capitalization, punctuation, and selected aspects of usage
APA Style is Exceptionally comprehensive and complex
Coming up next: • In-text citations • Reference list • Cover Page • Running Head • Style issues - just a few
In-text citations • In-text citations are what you put into the actual text of a paper to document the source of your ideas • You must indicate the source of ideas as well as direct quotes and paraphrases • APA uses an author/date format • APA does NOT use footnotes for citations
Study the first complete paragraph on the third page of the article on year round school, 2nd sentence: Author Author of a 2nd article reaching the same conclusion as Ballinger date For example, Ballinger (2000) and Barber (1996) found that students’ attendance and academic achievement at year-round schools improved; some studies suggest that this schedule may especially benefit at-risk students (Kneese, 1996; Shields & Oberg, 1999). Semi-colon used to separate citations when more than one article listed in a parenthesis Period outside parens
What information needs to be included? • The author or authors of your source • The publication date • Sometimes the page number
When do you need a page number? • ALWAYS when you have a direct quote (that is you use the EXACT words of your source) • Highly recommended when you paraphrase (p. 171)
You do NOT need a page number • When you are summarizing the general idea or conclusions of a source
Citation information within the text (your sentences) should NOT be repeated in the parenthesis
Author’s name is part of the sentence Date, but not name, is put in parenthesis For example, Ballinger (2000) and Barber (1996) found that students’ attendance and academic achievement at year-round schools improved; some studies suggest that this schedule may especially benefit at-risk students (Kneese, 1996; Shields & Oberg, 1999). A semi-colon is used to separate more than one work cited within the same parenthesis. The names of these authors were NOT included within the text of the sentence so authors names and pub dates are put in the parenthetical citation.
Example: Direct quotation In explaining their choice of profession, aspiring teachers often mention the long summer vacation as a contributing factor, yet at a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, “ teachers viewed the year-round schedule as an improvement in their working conditions” (Haser & Nasser, 2003. p. 67). Quotation marks for direct quote No punctuation even though there’s a period there in the original sentence. Note period comes at the very end.
Longer quotations • Direct quotations 40 words or longer are placed in block form without quotation marks around the words • See pp. 170-171