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January 30, 2012. BellRinger : Complete the logical and spatial puzzles on the handout from Thursday Objective: Determine functions and activities to stimulate various parts of the brain Differentiate between the various stages in cell communication Homework: Complete chp 48 notes. Shark.

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january 30 2012
January 30, 2012
  • BellRinger:
    • Complete the logical and spatial puzzles on the handout from Thursday
  • Objective:
    • Determine functions and activities to stimulate various parts of the brain
    • Differentiate between the various stages in cell communication
  • Homework:
    • Complete chp 48 notes
evolution of vertebrate brain

Shark

Frog

Crocodile

Cat

Human

Spinal cord

Hind: Medulla oblongata

Hind: Cerebellum

Optic tectum

Bird

Midbrain

Fore: Cerebrum

Olfactory tract

Evolution of vertebrate brain

forebrain

forebraindominant cerebrum

hindbrain

forebrain

slide4

Frontal lobe

Parietal lobe

Motor cortex

Somatosensory cortex

Somatosensory

association

area

Speech

Frontal

association

area

Taste

Reading

Speech

Hearing

Visual

association

area

Smell

Auditory

association

area

Vision

Temporal lobe

Occipital lobe

Figure 48.27

  • The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions
  • Each side of the cerebral cortex has four lobes
    • Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
palm press activity
Palm Press Activity
  • Do not move your feet!
  • Yoga pose
  • What area of your brain is active?
  • Label/color on your brain map
the cerebellum
The Cerebellum
  • Is important for coordination and error checking during motor, perceptual, and cognitive functions
  • Is also involved in learning and remembering motor skills
which part of my brain is active
Which part of my brain is active?
  • Attention & alertness?
  • What else does the part of the brain do?
  • Label/color on your brain map
the brainstem
The Brainstem
  • The brainstem consists of three parts
    • The medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain
brainstem
Brainstem
  • The medulla oblongata
    • Contains centers that control several visceral functions
  • The pons
    • Also participates in visceral functions
  • The midbrain
    • Contains centers for the receipt and integration of several types of sensory information
the diencephalon
The Diencephalon
  • The embryonic diencephalon develops into three adult brain regions
    • The epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus
which part of my brain is active1
Which part of my brain is active?
  • Fight or flight?
  • What controls the breathing/heart rate changes associated with the response?
  • Why do we have this response – especially to loud noises?
  • Label/color on your brain map
  • Listen to someone speak and express themselves in a foreign language
  • Which part of the brain takes in all sensory input (except smell)
slide12
The epithalamus
    • Includes the pineal gland and the choroid plexus
  • The thalamus
    • “Central operator”
    • Is the main input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum and the main output center for motor information leaving the cerebrum
  • The hypothalamus regulates
    • Homeostasis
    • Basic survival behaviors such as feeding, fighting, fleeing, and reproducing
emotion cards
Emotion Cards
  • No words, facial expressions only
  • Which part of your brain is active?
  • What would happen if we were unable to interpret this nonverbal communication?
  • Are some people better than others?
  • Label/color on your brain map
emotions

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Prefrontal cortex

Olfactory

bulb

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Figure 48.30

Emotions
  • The limbic system
    • Is a ring of structures around the brainstem
slide15
This limbic system includes three parts of the cerebral cortex
    • The amygdala, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb
  • These structures interact with the neocortex to mediate primary emotions
    • And attach emotional “feelings” to survival-related functions
circadian rhythms
Circadian Rhythms
  • The hypothalamus also regulates circadian rhythms
    • Such as the sleep/wake cycle
  • Animals usually have a biological clock
    • Which is a pair of suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) found in the hypothalamus
short term memory
Short Term Memory
  • Which part of the brain was stimulated during the memory game?
  • What part of your brain would be involved if this information was to be stored in your long term memory?
  • Label/color on your brain map
arousal and sleep

Eye

Input from ears

Reticular formation

Input from touch,

pain, and temperature

receptors

Figure 48.24

Arousal and Sleep
  • A diffuse network of neurons called the reticular formation
    • Is present in the core of the brainstem
  • Midbrain
    • Sight/Sound reflexes
slide19
A part of the reticular formation, the reticular activating system (RAS)
    • Regulates sleep and arousal
midbrain hindbrain
Midbrain & Hindbrain
  • How can we see the “ancientness” of these areas of the brain in the functions that these parts control?
logic puzzle
Logic Puzzle
  • What part of the brain was stimulated when you were solving these puzzles?
  • What is the difference in the way your brain handles detailed, sequential information (logic problem) compared to the way it handles spatial information?
  • What connects these 2 parts?
  • Put them together – write your full name in cursive backwards (mirror image)
  • Label/color on your brain map
cerebrum
Cerebrum
  • Most highly evolved structure of mammalian brain
  • Cerebrum divided
    • hemispheres
    • left = right side of body
    • right = left side of body
  • Corpus callosum
    • major connection between 2 hemispheres
lateralization of brain function
Lateralization of Brain Function
  • Left hemisphere
    • language, math, logic operations, processing of serial sequences of information, visual & auditory details
    • detailed activities required for motor control
  • Right hemisphere
    • pattern recognition, spatial relationships, non-verbal ideation, emotional processing, parallel processing of information
the cerebral hemispheres
The Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Cerebral Cortex and Functional Regions
    • Motor Areas
      • frontal lobe
      • What would you do to activate this area?
      • Which parts of your body do you think have the most motor control?
    • Sensory Areas
      • parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
      • Think back to the sensory lab…which parts of the body were the most sensitive to touch?
learning check
Learning Check
  • What area of the brain is generally regarded as the area that “makes us human?” What area is so different in our brains?
slide29

Central nervous

system (CNS)

Peripheral nervous

system (PNS)

Brain

Cranial

nerves

Spinal cord

Ganglia

outside

CNS

Spinal

nerves

Figure 48.19

  • In all vertebrates, the nervous system
    • Shows a high degree of cephalization and distinct CNS and PNS components
central nervous system cns
Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Brain & Spinal cord form the central nervous system
  • The brain
    • provides integrative power
    • Controls complex behavior of vertebrates
  • The spinal cord
    • integrates simple responses to certain kinds of stimuli
    • conveys information to and from the brain
slide31

Gray matter

White

matter

Ventricles

Figure 48.20

  • The brain & spinal cord are hollow
    • The central canal of the spinal cord and the four ventricles of the brain contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
the peripheral nervous system

Peripheral

nervous system

Somatic

nervous

system

Autonomic

nervous

system

Sympathetic

division

Parasympathetic

division

Enteric

division

Figure 48.21

The Peripheral Nervous System
slide33

The PNS transmits information to and from the CNS

  • The PNS can be divided into two functional components
    • Somaticnervous system
      • Carries signals to & from skeletal muscles
    • Autonomicnervous system
      • Carries signals to and from internal organs and glands
pns somatic nervous system
PNS- Somatic Nervous System
  • The somatic nervous system
    • Includes the cranial nerves and spinal nerves
  • Cranial nerves
    • originate in the brain
    • terminate mostly in organs of the head and upper body
  • Spinal nerves
    • originate in the spinal cord
    • extend to parts of the body below the head
slide35
PNS
  • The autonomic nervous system
    • Regulates the internal environment, in an involuntary manner
    • Is divided into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions
slide36

Parasympathetic division

Sympathetic division

Action on target organs:

Action on target organs:

Dilates pupil

of eye

Constricts pupil

of eye

Location of

preganglionic neurons:

brainstem and sacral

segments of spinal cord

Location of

preganglionic neurons:

thoracic and lumbar

segments of spinal cord

Inhibits salivary

gland secretion

Stimulates salivary

gland secretion

Sympathetic

ganglia

Neurotransmitter

released by

preganglionic neurons:

acetylcholine

Constricts

bronchi in lungs

Relaxes bronchi

in lungs

Neurotransmitter

released by

preganglionic neurons:

acetylcholine

Cervical

Accelerates heart

Slows heart

Inhibits activity of

stomach and intestines

Thoracic

Stimulates activity

of stomach and

intestines

Location of

postganglionic neurons:

in ganglia close to or

within target organs

Location of

postganglionic neurons:

some in ganglia close to

target organs; others in

a chain of ganglia near

spinal cord

Inhibits activity

of pancreas

Stimulates activity

of pancreas

Stimulates glucose

release from liver;

inhibits gallbladder

Stimulates

gallbladder

Lumbar

Neurotransmitter

released by

postganglionic neurons:

acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter

released by

postganglionic neurons:

norepinephrine

Stimulates

adrenal medulla

Promotes emptying

of bladder

Inhibits emptying

of bladder

Promotes erection

of genitalia

Promotes ejaculation and

vaginal contractions

Sacral

Synapse

Figure 48.22

  • The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
    • Have antagonistic effects on target organs
slide37
The sympathetic division
    • Correlates with the “fight-or-flight” response
  • The parasympathetic division
    • Promotes a return to self-maintenance functions- “rest and digest”
  • The enteric division
    • Controls the activity of the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder
summary
Summary
  • Differentiate between the CNS and PNS