Cardiovascular System. heart and blood vessels. Systemic Circulation – delivers blood to all body cells and carries away waste Pulmonary Circulation – eliminates carbon dioxide and oxygenates blood (lung pathway) . Structure of the Heart.
heart and blood vessels
Systemic Circulation – delivers blood to all body cells and carries away waste
Pulmonary Circulation – eliminates carbon dioxide and oxygenates blood (lung pathway)
Heart Size – about 14 cm x 9 cm (the size of a fist).
Located in the mediastinum (space between lungs, backbone, sternum), The distal end of the heart is called the apex.
Pericardial cavity – contains fluid for the heart to float in, reducing friction
Wall of the Heart
Epicardium– outer layer, reduces friction
Myocardium – middle layer, mostly cardiac muscle
Endocardium – thin inner lining, within chambers of the heart
Aortic and Pulmonary are both semilunar valves
Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers—the systolic pressure (as the heart beats) over the diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats).
The average (normal) blood pressure for an adult is 120/80. This number varies by person and it is best if you know what is *normal* for you, so that you (or your doctor) recognize when something is not normal.
The cusps (flaps) of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves are anchored to the ventricle walls by fibrous “cords” called chordae tendineae, which attach to the wall by papillary muscles. This prevents the valves from being pushed up into the atria during ventricular systole.
Can you identify these parts?
Blood Vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries
ARTERIES : strong elastic vessels which carry blood moving away from the heart. Smallest ones are arterioles which connect to capillaries.
VEINS - Thinner, less muscular vessels carrying blood toward the heart.
Smallest ones are called venules which connect to capillaries. Contain valves.
Blood Clots can occur if blood does not flow properly through the veins - can occur if a person does not move enough
Aorta - Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch, Descending Aorta, Abdominal Aorta. The aorta is the largest artery. (leaves left ventricle)
Pulmonary Trunk – splits into left and right, both lead to the lungs (leaves left ventricle)
Pulmonary Veins – return blood from the lungs to the heart (connects to left atrium)
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava – return blood from the head and body to the heart (connects to right atrium)