World War I. Prelude to War. Political Unrest in Mexico, caused by a series of dictators who were overthrown. Carranza becomes Mexico’s president, which was met with much animosity. Mexican forces opposed to Carranza conducted raids into the U.S.
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Political Unrest in Mexico, caused by a series of dictators who were overthrown.
Carranza becomes Mexico’s president, which was met with much animosity. Mexican forces opposed to Carranza conducted raids into the U.S.
Led by Pancho Villa, guerrillas burned the town of Columbus, New Mexico, killing 18 Americans. Wilson sent 6,000 troops under General John J. Pershing who tried unsuccessfully to caputre Villa in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Wilson’s growing concern over the war in Europe led him to recall the troops.
In 1917, the U.S. expanded its naval power in the Caribbean by purchasing the Virgin Islands from Denmark.
1914- Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the thrown of Austria-Hungary) is assassinated by a Slavic nationalist. GavriloPrincip. This causes Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, July 28, 1914.
Russia defends Serbia and begins mobilizing troops along the border of Germany and Austria- Hungary.
Russia rejects Germany’s demands to stop mobilizing. In return, Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1) and France (Aug. 3).
Germany called their plan of attack, the Schlieffen Plan and it was effective because it would allow Germany to quickly invade France through Belgium (friend of Great Britain). This caused Belgium and Great Britain to declare war on Germany.
Result? The Schlieffen Plan FAILED because both sides were just as powerful and ending up reaching a stalemate.
By August 4, all major powers in Europe are at war.
Germany offers to compensate Americans injured on the Sussex and promised not to sink anymore merchant ships without warning. This was known as the Sussex Pledge.
Wilson wins reelection on a peace ticket, “he kept us out the war!”
Gruesome war- Use of poisonous gas, new weaponry (tanks, machine guns) and new tactics (trench warfare). This makes Wilson want to negotiate a peace treaty between warring nations.
Germany decides to resume unrestricted warfare. They were hoping to starve Britain into submission with the permission to sink ships on site. The Germans felt that even if this violated the Sussex Pledge causing the U.S. to enter the war, we would not be able to raise an army and transport it to Europe without the allies collapsing first.
February 3, 1917- we break off diplomatic relations with Germany.
Zimmerman Telegram- The German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman, wrote to the German ambassador in Mexico to arrange an alliance between Mexico and Germany (if the U.S. entered the war). To encourage Mexico’s cooperation, Germany promised that Mexico would regain Texas, Arizona and New Mexico, upon a Germany victory.
This telegram was intercepted by Britain and the U.S. published the telegram, which caused an outrage in the U.S.
In addition to the note, FOUR American merchant ships were sunk without warning between March 12- 19.
Fourteen Points- Proposals given by President Wilson on January 8, 1918 (prior to the end of the war). These points outlined the post- World War I peace treaty later negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference and were partially fulfilled in the conference’s resulting Treaty of Versailles.
Seven of the points proposed territory adjustments, and the fourteenth point was the basis for the League of Nations, which the U.S. never joined.
League of Nations- An organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all its members.
Article 10, “members of the League would regard an attack on one country as an attack on all.”
Congress passed new restrictive immigration laws in part because of the growing fear of socialism that was spreading through southern and eastern Europe.
After Russia collapsed to communism in the Russian Revolution of 1917, panic swept across the United States. In the Red Scare of 1919–1920, Americans became suspicious that they might fall victim to a communist plot to take over the country.
The two main methods that workers’ unions used to create fair labor agreements—striking and collective bargaining—came to be seen as tools of socialists and anarchists.
As a result, labor unions were frowned upon and dwindled in number and size. Several hundred Americans who affiliated with the Communist and Socialist parties were arrested, as were labor organizers and others who criticized the U.S. government.