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Animal Relationships. By: Stephany Chavez. Forest. Mutualism - certain ants nest inside the plant's thorns. In exchange for food and shelter, ants protect trees from attack by herbivores and competition from other plants.

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Animal Relationships


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animal relationships

Animal Relationships

By: Stephany Chavez

forest
Forest
  • Mutualism-certain ants nest inside the plant's thorns. In exchange for food and shelter, ants protect trees from attack by herbivores and competition from other plants.
  • Parasitism-when the fungus "chicken of the woods" grows on trees. The fungus breaks down the tree and gets its nutrients that way. All that happens to the tree is bad stuff. The tree decays, gets weak, and becomes very vulnerable with wicked weather.
  • Commensalism-Using a second organism for housing, like orchids which grow on trees, or birds that live in holes in trees.
  • Scavenger-an animal that eats dead plant and animal matter on the forest floor. Ex: King Vulture eats anything from cattle carcasses to beached fish
  • Predator/Prey-Predator-organism that hunts. Prey-organism that is being hunted. Ex: Frog-fly, frog is hunting the fly, while the fly is being hunted by it.
  • Decomposers-Are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so carry out the natural process of decomposition. Ex: Fungi and Bacteria.
  • Competition-When two organisms fight for the same thing. Ex: two lions fighting for land.
rainforest
Rainforest

Mutualism- Sloth hairs are grooved, which allows algae to easily take hold and grow on the sloth's fur.  This camouflages the sloth and allows the algae to get closer to the sunlight.

Parasitism- A parasitic wasp preys on fig wasps, drilling a small hole into the fig and using her long ovipositor to inject an egg near a developing fig wasp larva, which will be consumed by the parasitic larva after it hatches.

Commensalism-Flower mites which feed on pollen hitchhike from one flower to a fresher one by climbing into the nasal passages of hummingbirds and disembarking when carried to a better flower. 

Scavenger-earthworm is a scavenger in the rainforest. It eats dead/dying leaves and plants.

Predator/Prey- bear and fish. Bear hunts for a fish in the river and the fish is being hunted by it.

Decomposers-Fungi are the great decomposers of the rainforest.

After the tree dies, the fungi must decompose it before these nutrients become available for other plants.

Competition-Assassin bug in the rainforest eats the ants.

tundra
Tundra
  • Mutualism-reindeer and the microorganisms that live in their digestive tract. The microorganisms receive food from the reindeer, and transform the food into a form usable by the reindeer.
  • Parasitism- Ticks can be on animals such as wolves. Ticks cause the wolves to lose too much blood.
  • Commensalism- Reindeers feed on lichens when the weather is at its coldest. This is the only food available to them which can provide them with carbohydrates and can give them energy and heat.
  • Scavenger- Glaucous gulls are seabirds they eat meat, dead fish and dead birds, but they also prey on waterfowl and fish.
  • Predator/Prey-killer whales and seals
  • Decomposer-Tundra soils have bacteria and fungi that are decomposers.
  • Competition-Otters and Beavers compete for space and food.
salt water
Salt Water

Mutualism- Fiddler crab burrows aerate the roots of Spartina, providing essential oxygen to the plants, while the nutrient-rich waste created by mussels provides Spartina with nitrogen. In turn, the Spartina mixes the soil, provides a surface to which mussels can attach, and provides shelter and food to the fiddler crabs.

Parasitism-Isopods have adapted strong suckers, flat bodies, and sharp jaws used to attach to their host (fish).

Commensalism-Clownfish live in the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. They are coated in mucous, which protects them from the anemone's stinging nematocysts.

Scavenger- Sharks eating dead or wounded fish.

Predator/Prey- killer whales eat cod

Decomposer- bacteria and fungi, are what break down the dead organisms minerals and nutrients from organics and recycling them back into the food web.

Competition- Water Angler fish compete with each other for food.

fresh water
Fresh Water
  • Mutualism-Algae and freshwater hydroids that find substrates on the shells or carapaces of organisms that benefit from the camouflage like freshwater snails, some crustaceans, and turtles.
  • Parasitism-There are tons of fish and snail parasites that include protozoans (mostly ciliates & flagellates), leeches, nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, myxozoans. There are even some parasitic crustaceans.
  • Commensalism-There are protozoans that live on chironomids and mayfly larvae that benefit from their hosts, but have no effects that have been shown on their hosts.
  • Scavenger- Scavengers would be crustaceans such as crabs.
  • Predator/Prey- Great white sharks and seals/sea lions
  • Decomposer- Fungi are the primary and common of decomposers of litter in many ecosystems.
  • Competition- Alligators fight against other alligators for food.
desert
Desert

Mutualism-Pollination of flowers by honey bees

Parasitism-A flea is a parasite on a coyote. The flea benefits by drinking the coyote's blood, but the coyote, by losing blood and acquiring discomfort and potential disease, is harmed.

Commensalism-Moss growing on trees benefits by being raised above forest floor competition, while the tree doesn't get much out of the deal either way.

Scavenger-Many large carnivores that hunt regularly, such as coyotes and mountain lions, will scavenge if the opportunity presents itself.

Predator/Prey-Scorpions (predator)/ insects (prey).

Decomposer-fungi on plants or a carcass

Competition-A coyote and another coyote will fight for food in the desert.