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ATB13-1

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  1. ATB13-1

  2. ATB13-1

  3. WAKE TURBULENCE AVOIDANCE This video is not available. VIDEO CLIP

  4. OBJECTIVE(S) • On an End-of-Lesson Test, and in accordance with the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) and FAA Order 7110.65, you will identify the following categories related to to wake turbulence: • 1. Definition of Wake Turbulence. • 2. Factors Affecting Wake Turbulence Intensity. • 3. Wingtip Vortices. • 4. Induced Roll. • 5. Helicopter Downwash. • 6. Jet Engine Blast. ATB13-2

  5. WAKE TURBULENCE • Wake Turbulence is a phenomena resulting from the passage of an aircraft through the atmosphere. The term includes vortices, thrust stream turbulence, jet blast, jet wash, propeller wash, and rotor wash both on the ground and in the air. ATB13-3

  6. VORTICES • Vortices are circular patterns of air crafted by the movement of an airfoil through the air when generating lift. ATB13-4

  7. CLEAN CONFIGURATION ATB13-5A

  8. DIRTY CONFIGURATION ATB13-5B

  9. SPEED ATB13-6

  10. WEIGHT MD11 170KTS DC9 170KTS ATB13-7

  11. ANSWER C. RESPONSE ITEM • The greatest wake turbulence is associated with which aircraft configuration below? • A. Heavy, clean, fast • B. Heavy, dirty, slow • C. Heavy, clean, slow ATB13-8

  12. ANSWER An aircraft on approach to an airport QUESTION • If you have an aircraft on approach to an airport and a similar aircraft cruising during en route flight, which would create a greater wake turbulence approach? ATB13-9

  13. ANSWER Weight QUESTION • Of speed, configuration, and weight, which one has the greatest impact on wake turbulence? ATB13-10

  14. ROLLUP EFFECT UP AND IN DOWN AND OUT ATB13-11

  15. TRAILING VORTICES ATB13-12

  16. ANSWER Wake turbulence QUESTION • What is the name of the turbulent phenomenon created by aircraft passing through the atmosphere? ATB13-13

  17. ANSWER ‘Wake Vortex’ or ‘Wingtip Vortices’ QUESTION • The circular patterns created by wake turbulence are often known as what? ATB13-14

  18. VORTEX GENERATION ROTATION LIFT BEGINS/ VORTICES BEGIN TOUCHDOWN LIFT ENDS/ VORTICES END ATB13-15

  19. VORTEX CIRCULATION ATB13-16

  20. VORTEX SINK RATE APPROX. 900 FEET SINK RATE = 300 FEET TO 500 FEET PER MINUTE ATB13-17

  21. VORTEX MOVEMENT AT THE GROUND WITH NO WIND 2-3 KT MOVEMENT 2-3 KT MOVEMENT ATB13-18

  22. ANSWER At rotation or when lift begins QUESTION • For fixed-wing aircraft, vortices begin at what stage of flight? ATB13-19

  23. ANSWER At touchdown or when lift ends QUESTION • When do fixed-wing aircraft stop generating vortices? ATB13-20

  24. GROUND EFFECT WITH CROSSWINDS 5 KT OF WIND THIS VORTEX HAS LITTLE MOVEMENT THIS VORTEX TRAVELS AT A SPEED OF 8 KTS ATB13-21

  25. GROUND EFFECT WITH A TAILWIND THE TAILWIND MOVES THE VORTICES INTO THE SECOND AIRCRAFT’S FLIGHT PATH 5 KT TAILWIND TOUCHDOWN POINT ATB13-22

  26. ANSWER counterclockwise; clockwise QUESTION • When observing an aircraft from behind, the circulation of vortices off the right wingtip is ______ and _______ off the left wingtip. ATB13-23

  27. RESPONSE ITEM • Vortices from large aircraft will sink approximately 300 feet to 500 feet per minute and level off approximately ______ feet below the flight path. • A. 90 • B. 900 • C. 9,000 B. 900 feet ATB13-24

  28. ANSWER 2; 3 QUESTION • Wih no wind, vortices within 100 feet to 200 feet’ of the ground will move _______ to _______ knots laterally across the ground. ATB13-25

  29. ANSWER stall; increasing QUESTION • For landing aircraft, crosswinds of 1 to 5 knots tend to _______ the lateral movement of one vortex while _______ the movement of the other. ATB13-26

  30. O R V T E X D I R E C T I O N C O U N T E R C O N T L O R VORTEX ROLL ATB13-27

  31. O R V T E X D I R E C T I O N C O U N T E R C O N T L R O COUNTER CONTROL Counter control is most effective when an aircraft’s roll-control surfaces (ailerons) extend beyond the edge of the vortex. ATB13-28

  32. ANSWER roll control of the aircraft QUESTION • Hazardous conditions occur when the induced roll exceeds the level of the ______. ATB13-29

  33. ANSWER outer edges QUESTION • Counter control is most effective and roll is minimal when the wingspan and ailerons extend beyond the _______ of the vortex. ATB13-30

  34. HELICOPTER DOWNWASH DOWNWASH MAY TRAVEL UP TO 3 TIMES DIAMETER OF THE ROTOR. ATB13-31

  35. HELICOPTER VORTICES ATB13-32

  36. ANSWER Up to 3 times the diameter of its rotors QUESTION • A hovering helicopter creates a downwash from its main rotors that can travel up to how far? ATB13-33

  37. ANSWER It must be in forward flight. QUESTION • What must a helicopter be doing in order to generate wing tip vortices? ATB13-34

  38. JET BLAST • Jet blast is jet engine exhaust (thrust stream turbulence). ATB13-35

  39. JET BLAST “TOWER, CESSNA THREE FOUR VICTOR, WE SEEM TO BE HAVING A LITTLE PROBLEM HERE!” ATB13-36

  40. ANSWER Thrust stream turbulence QUESTION • What is another name for jet blast? ATB13-37

  41. WAKE TURBULENCE AVOIDANCE This video is not available.

  42. ANSWER Because it is unpredictable. QUESTION • Why is the controller not responsible for anticipating the existence or effects of wake turbulence? ATB13-38

  43. RESPONSE ITEM • Wake turbulence has the greatest impact on ATC in the areas of • A. damage and money. • B. resources and delays. • C. increased separation and traffic management delays. C. increased separation and traffic management delays. ATB13-39