New Standards for Maintaining, Collecting and Reporting Students′ and Educational Staff Members′Race and Ethnicity DataInformation for School DistrictsJuly 2009
Background on New Standards • In 1976, Congress passed Public Law 94-311 in response to an under-count of Americans of Spanish origin or descent in the 1970 Census. • In 1977, U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued the Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting (Directive No. 15) to provide for the collection and use of compatible, non-duplicated, exchangeable race and ethnicity data by Federal agencies.
Background on New Standards (cont.) • In 1997, U.S. OMB adopted Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, which included asking a two-part question and selecting one or more racial categories. • In 2000, revised standards were utilized for the 2000 Census. • In 2005, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission adopted the revised standards (EEO-1). • In 2007, the U.S. Department of Education (U.S. ED) was among the last federal agencies to implement the revised standards.
How Are Data Reported? From 1977 until the new standards are implemented, students and educational staff members have been reported in only one of the five race/ethnicity categories. Race/ethnicity is defined as the general racial/ethnic heritage category that most clearly reflects an individual's recognition of his/her community with which he/she most closely identifies. These categories are: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black (non Hispanic), Hispanic or White (non Hispanic).
How Are the Data Used? • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires collection of race and ethnicity data on students with disabilities. • The data are required for accountability reports collected through EDFacts data collection system. • The data are required for federal funding eligibility. • The data are used by the Office of Civil Rights to assist with enforcement of laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race and national origin. • The data are used to monitor the progress of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001.
Why the Change? • Allows individuals to more accurately identify themselves given the increasing diversity of the nation’s population • Provides the option for respondents to select multiple race categories to describe their racial backgrounds • Addresses the previous underreporting of Hispanic ethnicity under the old reporting scheme as identified by the Census.
Why the Change? (cont.) • Matches the "two-part" question format already adopted by other federal agencies, including the federal Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), the U.S. Census Bureau, and various health agencies • Supplies a more accurate reflection of population changes • New standards are required for federal funding eligibility and accountability reporting.
Final Guidance (School District) Effective the beginning of the 2010-2011 School Year • Mandates two-part question (for both student and staff) • Collects ethnicity and race separately • Five race categories • Allows individuals to select multiple races • Self-identification (preferable) • Observer identification (last resort) • Re-inventory (highly suggested but optional) • Retain record (original individual responses) at least three years
Two-Part Question Recommended sample two-part question: Both Part A and Part B of the question must be answered. Part A: Is this student Hispanic/Latino? (choose only one): • No, not Hispanic or Latino • Yes, Hispanic or Latino Part B: What is the student’s race? (select one or more, regardless of ethnicity): • American Indian or Alaska Native • Asian • Black or African-American • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander • White Note: Both Parts A and B must be completed. We encourage individuals to select an answer for both parts. If either Part A or B is not answered, the U.S. Department of Education requires the school district to supply an answer on the individual’s behalf.
Ethnicity Ethnicity: Identification of a group based upon a perceived cultural distinctiveness that makes the group into a "people." This distinctiveness is believed to be expressed in language, music, values, art, styles, literature, family life, religion, ritual, food, naming, public life, and material culture.* Hispanic or Latino: A person of Cuban, Mexican Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term "Spanish origin" can be used in addition to "Hispanic/Latino or Latino." *Source: Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Race Race: Primarily a sociological designation, identifying a class sharing some outward physical characteristics and some commonalities of culture and history.* • American Indian or Alaska Native: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America). • Asian: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia or the Indian Subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand and Vietnam. • Black of African-American: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. • White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. *Source: Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Self-Identification (preferable) • Allows educational staff members or students (parent or guardian) to select "who I am" • Based upon how an individual defines him or herself • Parents or guardians will be the primary source for identifying a student’s race and ethnicity • Educational staff members should self-identify their individual races and ethnicity • Both parts of the question must be answered. If the respondent fails to identify for either part (A or B) of the question, the school district is required to supply an answer on behalf of the respondent.
Observer Identification (last resort) • District policy should indicate steps to be taken before observer identification is used and inform the parent/student or educational staff member that the confidentiality of the individual’s race and ethnicity will be maintained. • Used as "last resort." • Sample observation methods: • Check prior record • In the case of a student, check siblings' records • First-hand knowledge of individual • Country of birth or origin • Home language or parent’s language of preference (students) • Observe race and/or ethnicity
Re-inventory (highly suggested but optional) • The final guidance encourages school districts to give all students and educational staff members the opportunity to re-identify their race and ethnicity. Such a process is beneficial for states and school districts because: • On the personal level, it provides students and educational staff members of multiracial backgrounds the opportunity to express their ethnicity, as well as their race(s). • On the institutional level, it promotes data consistency and comparability within schools, districts and states.
Re-inventory – Suggested Method(highly suggested but optional) For Students: Accomplished by requiring all students to complete fall 2010 enrollment forms utilizing the two-part question. For Educational Staff Members: Accomplished during the fall of 2010 by requiring educational staff members to update their records utilizing the two-part question. Additional option: Mail survey to students and educational staff members asking each respondent to re-identify race and ethnicity (two-part question).
Records Retention • Original responses to the two-part question format must be retained for three years for "civil rights enforcement." • However, in cases where litigation, a claim, an audit or another action has been started, records must be maintained until completion of the action. • For Hispanic/Latino respondents, both parts of the question must be maintained by the school district’s local data storage system.
Projections indicate that only a small percentage of students will be reclassified when the new guidance is implemented. This chart represents the difference between the percentage for race and ethnicity categories for 2008 from the projected values for 2010.
Categories Reported to the State of Michigan The field structure for both the Michigan Student Data System (MSDS) and Registry of Educational Personnel (REP) will remain the same. What will change is the state’s interpretation of the data reported from the school districts. • American Indian or Alaska Native (first position) • Asian (second position) • Black or African American (third position) • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (fourth position) • White (fifth position) • Hispanic/Latino (sixth position)
School Districts’ Next Steps? • Revise forms to comply with two-part question format. • Contact your software vendors to ensure that they are aware of the mandated reporting changes. • Plan for implementation of the new format. • Provide staff member training on new two-question format, particularly for school/facility secretaries (the likely observer), in case respondents do not self-identify. • Provide communication to educational staff members and parents/students. • Review all documentation provided on the CEPI Web site.
Final Guidance (State) • Report aggregated data in seven categories (see next slide for list) • Bridging Methodology • Make new 1997 standards comparable to the old 1977 standards
American Indian or Alaskan Native Asian or Pacific Islander Hispanic Black, Not Hispanic White, Not Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Hispanic or Latino Black or African American White Two or more races Current/Future Reporting Categoriesto U.S. ED Future (1997 standards) Current (1977 standards) Multiracial/Other (Not currently reported)
Questions? e-mail: CEPI@michigan.gov contact: (517) 335-0505 (option 3)