Cardiovascular System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cardiovascular System

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  1. Cardiovascular System • Circulatory System • Transport system • Food and oxygen to cells • Waste and carbon dioxide away from cells

  2. Circulatory System • Heart • Blood vessels • Arteries- • Veins- • Capillaries • Blood • Red blood cells • White Blood cells • Platelets

  3. The heart

  4. Cardiac Cycle • Systole: contraction of the heart • Diastole: rest period between contraction • As your heart beats faster the rest period become shorter. What is happening in your heart during the rest periods? Blood from the vena cava fills the atria, and blood from the atria fills the ventricles

  5. Blood Vessels • Arteries • Carry blood that is Moving Away from the heart (Arteries Away!!) • Usually carry blood that contains more O2 • Have thick muscular walls • Small ones called arterioles • Examples • Aorta Femoral Artery Cerebral Artery • Radial Artery Jugular Artery

  6. Veins • Carry blood that is MovingToward the heart • Usually carry blood that contains more CO2 • Have thinner walls and valves to prevent back flow • Small ones called venules • Examples: • Vena Cava Pulmonary vein • Renal vein Hepatic vein

  7. Capillaries • Connect the tiniest arteries (arterioles) to the tiniest veins (venules) • Walls are 1 cell thick • Almost every cell in the body is close to a capillary • Oxygen and food pass into cells • Carbon dioxide and waste pass out

  8. Circulation

  9. How the blood flows Tricuspid Valve (V.) Right Ventricle To S. and I. Vena Cava Carrying CO2 Right Atrium Semilunar V to Pulmonary A Capillary bed lose O2: gain CO2 To the Lungs Pulmonary Vein Left Ventricle • Left Atrium Aorta carrying O2 to the body Mitral V. Semilunar V

  10. Using the Stethoscope A modern stethoscope consists of two earpieces connected by tubing to a chest piece which usually has both diaphragm and bell attachments. Earpieces should be angled forwards to match the direction of the practitioner's external ear canal. The bell is used to hear low-pitched sounds. Use for mid-diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis or S3 in heart failure.The diaphragm, by filtering out low-pitched sounds, highlights high-pitched sounds. Use for analyzing the second heart sound, ejection and midsystolic clicks and for the soft but high-pitched early diastolic murmur of aortic regurgitation.

  11. 1. Auscultate the heart at various sites At the apex. At the base (the part of the heart between the apex and the sternum) In the aortic and pulmonary areas to the right and left of the sternum, respectively

  12. Listen for normal heart sounds: The 1st heart sound, S1 (lub), marks the beginning of systole (end of diastole). • Related to the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves. • Loudest at the apex. • The 2nd hear sound, S2 (dub), marks the end of systole (beginning of diastole). • Related to the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves. • Loudest at the base.

  13. Blood Pressure

  14. Blood Pressure •

  15. Components of blood • Plasma: fluid which is 90% water • Carries dissolved nutrients, hormones, enzymes, vitamins, potassium, calcium, waste • Erythrocytes (Red blood cells) • Contain hemoglobin to carry oxygen

  16. Components of blood • Leukocytes (White blood cells) • Fight Infection (engulf bacteria, produce antibodies, produce enzymes, remove toxins ) • 5 fighter types: leuko-, baso-, and eosino-phils, lympho- and mono- cytes • Thrombocytes (platelets) stop bleeding

  17. Conductive Pathway • Electrical impulses control the pumping rate • Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms • Arrhythmias can be mild or life threatening • Diagnosed with a cardiac monitor/ECG • Treated with medication • Occasionally the person needs a pacemaker to regulate the heart


  19. ArrhythmiasNormal HR: 60-100 bpm and regular • Increased HR • Cardiovascular disease • Fever • Alcohol , caffeine, nicotine • Cocaine, amphetamines • Stress and fear • Hypoxia • dehydration • Decreased HR • Injury to conduction system • Natural aging process • Demerol, morphine, OxyContin, heroin • Coronary Artery Disease

  20. Heart AttackMyocardial infarction • Blockage in the coronary arteries which supply the heart muscle with blood (arteriosclerosis) • Without blood carrying oxygen and nutrients the heart muscle dies. • The larger the part of the heart muscle dead, the harder it is for the heart to pump. • Death can occur immediately. • If a person’s heart stops, perform CPR


  22. Video Library Player:  Looking at the Heart

  23. Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty plaques are deposited on the wall of a blood vessel. Plaques are often Cholesterol

  24. Prevention of Atherosclerosis • Low cholesterol* diet • No smoking • Exercise • Stress reduction * Animal Fat


  26. Mitral Prolapse

  27. Ventricular Septal Defect