Biomedical Imaging. Eugen Kvasnak, PhD. Department of Medical Biophysics and Informatics 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University. Content. Microscopy Ultrasound & Sonography SPECT & Gamma Camera CT NMR & fMRI PET. Microscopy.
Eugen Kvasnak, PhD.
Department of Medical Biophysics and Informatics
3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University
OM can only image dark or strongly refracting objects effectively.
Out of focus light from points outside the focal plane reduces image clarity. Compound optical microscopes are limited in their ability to resolve fine details by the properties of light and the refractive materials used to manufacture lenses. A lens magnifies by bending light. Optical microscopes are restricted in their ability to resolve features by a phenomenon called diffraction which, based on the numerical aperture AN of the optical system and the wavelengths of light used (λ), sets a definite limit (d) to the optical resolution. Assuming that optical aberrations are negligible, the resolution (d) is given by:
In case of λ = 550 nm(green light), with air as medium, the highest practical AN is 0.95, with oil, up to 1.5.
Due to diffraction, even the best optical microscope is limited to a resolution of around 0.2 micrometres.
Neuron growing on astroglia
Human stem cells
Human red blood cells
It is used to visualize muscles, tendons, and many internal organs, their size, structure and any pathological lesions with real time tomographic images. They are also used to visualize a fetus during routine and emergency prenatal care.
The technology is relatively inexpensive and portable, especially when compared with modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and computed tomography (CT).
It poses no known risksto the patient, it is generally described as a "safe test" because it does not use ionizing radiation, which imposes hazards (e.g. cancer production and chromosome breakage).
However, it has two potential physiological effects: it enhances inflammatory response; and it can heat soft tissue.
Ultrasound waves are reflected by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique for the bowel.
Ultrasound waves do not pass through air; therefore an evaluation of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine may be limited. Intestinal gas may also prevent visualization of deeper structures such as the pancreas and aorta.
Patients who are obese are more difficult to image because tissue attenuates (weakens) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body.
Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and therefore can only see the outer surface of bony structures and not what lies within.
(contrary to X-ray transmissions used in conventional CT)
Once a radiopharmaceutical has been administered, it is necessary to detect the gamma ray emissions in order to attain the functional information.
The instrument used in Nuclear Medicine for the detection of gamma rays is known as the Gamma camera.The components making up the gamma camera are the collimator, detector crystal, photomultiplier tube array, position logic circuits, and the data analysiscomputer.
- the first object that an emitted gamma photon encounters after exiting the body. The collimator is a pattern of holes through gamma ray absorbing material, usually lead or tungsten, that allows the projection of the gamma ray image onto the detector crystal. The collimator achieves this by only allowing those gamma rays traveling along certain directions to reach the detector.
A set of bone scan projections
SPECT - Applications
Abdominal and pelvic
(CBV). The CBV method requires injection of a class
of MRI contrast agents that are now in human clinical
Modern 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner.
Medical MRI most frequently relies on the relaxation properties of excited hydrogennuclei in water and lipids. When the object to be imaged is placed in a powerful, uniform magnetic field, the spins of atomic nuclei with a resulting non-zero spin have to arrange in a particular manner with the applied magnetic field according to quantum mechanics. Nuclei of hydrogen atoms (protons) have a simple spin 1/2 and therefore align either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field.
The spin polarization determines the basic MRI signal strength. For protons, it refers to the population difference of the two energy states that are associated with the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the proton spins in the magnetic field and governed by Boltzmann statistics. In a 1.5 T magnetic field (at room temperature) this difference refers to only about one in a million nuclei since the thermal energy far exceeds the energy difference between the parallel and antiparallel states. Yet the vast quantity of nuclei in a small volume sum to produce a detectable change in field. Most basic explanations of MRI will say that the nuclei align parallel or anti-parallel with the static magnetic field; however, because of quantum mechanical reasons, the individual nuclei are actually set off at an angle from the direction of the static magnetic field. The bulk collection of nuclei can be partitioned into a set whose sum spin are aligned parallel and a set whose sum spin are anti-parallel.
The magnetic dipole moment of the nuclei then precesses around the axial field. While the proportion is nearly equal, slightly more are oriented at the low energy angle. The frequency with which the dipole moments precess is called the Larmor frequency. The tissue is then briefly exposed to pulses of electromagnetic energy (RF pulses) in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, causing some of the magnetically aligned hydrogen nuclei to assume a temporary non-aligned high-energy state. Or in other words, the steady-state equilibrium established in the static magnetic field becomes perturbed and the population difference of the two energy levels is altered. The frequency of the pulses is governed by the Larmor equation to match the required energy difference between the two spin states.
Clinical practice, MRI is used to distinguish pathologic tissue (such as a brain tumor) from normal tissue. One advantage of an MRI scan is that it is thought to be harmless to the patient. It uses strong magnetic fields and non-ionizing radiation in the radio frequency range. Compare this to CT scans and traditional X-rays which involve doses of ionizing radiation and may increase the risk of malignancy, especially in a fetus.
While CT provides good spatial resolution (the ability to distinguish two structures an arbitrarily small distance from each other as separate), MRI provides comparable resolution with far better contrast resolution (the ability to distinguish the differences between two arbitrarily similar but not identical tissues). The basis of this ability is the complex library of pulse sequences that the modern medical MRI scanner includes, each of which is optimized to provide image contrast based on the chemical sensitivity of MRI.
For example, with particular values of the echo time (TE) and the repetition time (TR), which are basic parameters of image acquisition, a sequence will take on the property of T2-weighting. On a T2-weighted scan, fat-, water- and fluid-containing tissues are bright (most modern T2 sequences are actually fast T2 sequences). Damaged tissue tends to develop edema, which makes a T2-weighted sequence sensitive for pathology, and generally able to distinguish pathologic tissue from normal tissue. With the addition of an additional radio frequency pulse and additional manipulation of the magnetic gradients, a T2-weighted sequence can be converted to a FLAIR sequence, in which free water is now dark, but edematous tissues remain bright. This sequence in particular is currently the most sensitive way to evaluate the brain for demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
The typical MRI examination consists of 5-20 sequences, each of which are chosen to provide a particular type of information about the subject tissues. This information is then synthesized by the interpreting physician.