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By Ravi Kapila. The O bjective…. By the end of this session, you will understand the mechanics of a training intervention allowing you to independently construct and deliver training modules. CONDUCTING ORIENTATION AND TRAINING. TRAINING.

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    1. By Ravi Kapila

    2. The Objective….. By the end of this session, you will understand the mechanics of a training intervention allowing you to independently construct and deliver training modules.


    4. TRAINING • A planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experiences to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities

    5. WHY TRAINING ? • Achieving the highest levels of performance requires continuous improvement and learning • Better products and services • More responsive, adaptive and efficient staff giving the organization additional market place and performance advantage


    7. Confucius 451 BC • What I hear, I forget • What I see, I remember • What I do, I understand

    8. BENEFITS OF TRAINING • SUPERVISOR • Has more time for other tasks • Can take more responsibility • Improves Career potential • Builds a strong department team • Decreases absenteeism • Reduces turnover • Builds trust and respect • Promotes good relationships

    9. BENEFITS OF TRAINING • UNIT • Increases productivity • Reduces costs • Improves career potential • Creates a better image • Reduces safety hazards • Increases referrals • Builds repeat business • Attracts potential employees

    10. BENEFITS OF TRAINING • GUESTS • Provides high-quality products • Provides high quality services • Makes their visit more pleasant • Prepares for promotion • Value for money

    11. BENEFITS OF TRAINING • EMPLOYEE • Improves self-confidence • Increases motivation levels • Improve morale • Prepares for Promotion • Reduces tension & stress

    12. What employees expect from training? • Professional growth------- Not grades. • Training to be practical. • Training to be job related. • Their past experiences to be appreciated. • Training to be comfortable and relaxed. • To participate.

    13. TRAINEES REMEMBER • 10% of what they READ • 20% of what they HEAR • 30% of what they SEE • 50% of what they SEE and HEAR • 70% of what they TALK OVER with others • 80% of what they USE and DO • 95% of what they TEACH others

    14. IDENTYFYING TRAINING NEEDS • OBJECTIVES • Identify who the customer is when you’re preparing your TNA • express clearly what different parties expect to get from your TNA. • Design an effective TNA program. • Obtain and analyze all relevant data. • Prepare and write an effective report with recommendations to best meet the needs of the customer.

    15. A Systematic Approach to Training FEEDBACK Type of Skills Training Interpersonal Skills - Telephone Handling, Handling Complaints, etc. Physical/Practical Skills - Opening Wine Bottles, Making a bed, etc. Procedural Skills - Writing a KOT, Maintaining AD register, etc.

    16. Training Need Analysis Process FEEDBACK Other needs Discard

    17. Selecting Training Methods 1. Describe accurately the areas in which the key questions relating to our choice of method arise. 2. Put together a specification for the training methods which would be most effective in your organization. 3. Describe the methodology, organizational framework, resource requirements, support structure and target audience involved in group training, side-by-side training, text- based open learning, technology-based training and discovery learning. 4. Undertake a critical evaluation of the methods listed above in the context of your organization. 5. Apply the needs-methods matrices to the selection of training methods in your organization. 6. Describe the aids and techniques necessary to make effective use of the training methods.

    18. TYPES OF TRAINING • On-the-job training (a) One-to-one instructions- Helping a trainee to acquire knowledge and skills (b) Coaching- Developing the ability and experience of trainees by giving them systematically planned and progressively more “stretching” tasks to perform coupled with continuous appraisal and counselling (c) On-the-job instruction- Used when the trainee is naïve and new to the job. Coaching on the other hand is about helping the trainee to extend, improve or develop already acquired basic skills.

    19. Off-the-job Training- Courses/training given by the training department or outside consultants, or personal learning packages etc. or group training by members • Supporting- is not actually training. The support role is more pastoral by nature. Support trainers by discussing problems and progress, giving encouragement ( specially for those working on an individual personal learning programme).

    20. Preparing to Train WHO WHY + WHERE = HOW WHAT WHEN What will the training consist of? CHECK- LISTS Listing of the tasks and sub tasks carried out by the job holder and arranged in the sequence in which they are performed. PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES - When a job involves decision making which would result in any of a number of options being taken INTERPERSONAL SKILLS LIST- Demonstrating the appropriate behavior.

    21. EXAMPLE Interpersonal Skills List Greeting • Greet and welcome the guest in a warm and professional manner. • Radiate cheer while greeting the guest. • Remember “eye contact” is vital. • Treat every guest as a separate entity. • Show interest and willingness to help when the guest approaches.

    22. EXAMPLE : PROCEDURAL GUIDES. Check in Procedure

    23. TRAINING METHOD 2.Prepare 1.Plan 3.Present 1.Lesson Plan I-Introduction- How to get interest. N-Need-Why does the trainee need to learn. T-Title-What is being taught in this session. R-Range-How much is being taught in this session- link back - to previous knowledge, link forward to next session. O- Objective- By the end of this session trainee will be able to…..

    24. TRAINING METHOD Contd…. 2.Lesson Preparation WHAT? HOW? WHY? Standards Standards Prepare the environment and teaching material. Prepare the learner. 3.Presentation (I)Demonstrate to trainee. (ii)Slowly do the task together - Step by Step (iii) Allow trainee to do the task alone.

    25. What, When, Where, Why & How ! There are Five wise men I know!

    26. QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE • NEED • Trainers need to know and use questioning technique, for effective learning. • RANGE • We shall discuss ‘Questions’ that can be used for training sessions. • OBJECTIVE • At the end of the session, the participants will be able to questions in training sessions and handle the responses.

    27. Phrase that seeks a reply What is a question?

    28. To get feedback • To collect information Why do we ask questions?

    29. To gauge the ability of the trainee • To ensure right level of learning • To maintain interest and involvement • To lead towards logical answers • To determine level of understanding Why do we ask questions in training sessions?

    30. QUESTION TECHNIQUE Question Technique is one of the most powerful tools a trainer can use. Reasons for asking questions : • Establishing existing knowledge • Recap on previous sessions • Gain interest • Maintain interest • Check progress - keep trainees interested and alert • Encourage trainees to reason things out for themselves Framing Questions Whenever possible, use “OPEN” questions, which should begin with : WHO WHY WHERE WHEN WHAT WHICH HOW

    31. Always try to encourage questions from trainees Questions to avoid : • Questions which give yes/no answers • Vague Questions • Questions which end with the question word • Questions which allow the trainee to guess Answers Correct Answer: praise trainee Wrong Answer: Re-phrase questions-try to reason why Partially Correct: Say which part is correct and help the trainee to reason out the answer to the incorrect part I don’t know : Prompt or re-phrase the question

    32. EXPLANATIONS A Good Explanation Will Be: • In a logical sequence • clear and concise • relevant • accurate • in digestible chunks • delivered at an appropriate speed and with interest A Good Explanation Will Avoid: • jargon • assumptions • ambiguity A Good Explanation Will Include: • asking questions • use of visual aids • looking at the trainee

    33. TASK ANALYSIS • Job • Duties • Task Analysis • Job Description • Tasks • Standards • NEED • Task analysis is the basis for skill training. Every trainer needs to master the skill of task analysis • RANGE OBJECTIVE • At the end of the session, the participants will be able to do task analysis, and write standards for a task

    34. Tasks carried out by a particular employee in the completion of his allotted duties within the setting of his work environment

    35. A Statement which shows the general purpose of a particular job and an outline of the main duties involved

    36. Clarification of work • Organization of work • Selection • Training

    37. Instructional Objective Performance (Goal) What do I want the trainees to do? Condition Under what condition will the trainees do it? Standard How will I judge if the trainees do it correctly?

    38. At the end of the session, the trainee will be able to: • Typewrite 30 words per minute, using a computer and without looking at the keyboard, without any mistakes. • Name 5 French white wines, without looking at the wine list, with correct pronunciation

    39. Given a Bordeaux, a Chardonnay, and Champagne, the student will uncork three different wines. This exercise must be completed according to the methods demonstrated

    40. Performance: Will uncork three different wines Condition: Given a Bordeaux, a Chardonnay, and a Champagne Standard: According to the methods demonstrated

    41. Given a recipe that serves 50, a student will prepare the item for 180 people yielding consistent 6 oz. Portion sizes.

    42. Performance: Prepare the item for 180 People Condition: Given a recipe that serves 50 Standard: Yielding consistent 6 oz. portion sizes

    43. DEMONSTRATION A good demonstration will be • visible • in stages • used in conjunction with real material • done at an appropriate speed • accompanied by an explanation IMITATION - practicing manual skills • observing • analyzing any errors • intervening, prompting, reminding, stopping • encouraging

    44. GROUP-BASED TRAINING Learning through spectating • Lectures • Videos & Films • Demonstrations Learning through Contributing • Brainstorming - problem solving, exploring attitudes • Discussions - changing attitudes, comparing experience, contrasting knowledge, exploring application, developing commitment • Role Play - Attitude, Interpersonal Skill Development

    45. GROUP BASED TRAINING Contd…. Learning Through Activity& Independently from each other 1.Case Studies : A. Case Illustration - Describes decision made in a given situation, learners task is to criticize decisions, identify faults and mistakes. B. Case Problem - Learners analyze data, make decisions, defend their reasons, solve problem. 2.Exercises : Learners do something (explore, discuss,answer, complete, argue, compare, try) and review (analyze, self assess) 3.Simulations : Group simulations - trainees take roles, plan strategies, enact meetings, put arguments. Individual exercises through videos

    46. Introducing the Training Program • Establish or maintain rapport. • Outline the structure of training program. • Confirm details of pre-training sessions. • Establish own credibility • Clarify procedures for testing, appraising and reporting. • Opportunity to ask questions.

    47. Introducing a training session • Introduce the topic. • Confirm trainees’ level of knowledge or skill. • State the objectives. • Motivation by emphasizing on the benefits. • Structure and time sessions • Jargon and technical language. • Emphasis on safety rules, procedure and policy.

    48. The Four - Step Training Method Step One : Prepare to TrainWrite Training Objective. • Develop step- by- step plans. • Decide on Training Method. • Make a schedule for training. • Select the Training Location. • Get Training Materials/ equipment. • Set up of the work stations.Step Two : Conduct the Training • Prepare the trainee. • Begin the Training session. • Demonstrate the steps. • Avoid jargons • Take enough time. • Repeat the steps.

    49. The Four - Step Training Method Step Three: Coach Trial Performance • Let the trainees practice. • Coach the trainees. Step Four : Follow through • Coach a few tasks each day. • Continue positive support. • Give constant feedback. • Evaluate Trainee Progress. • Get the Trainees Feedback.

    50. Public Speaking DON’Ts • Don’t panic. Always remember that your audience wants you to succeed. • Don’t read a speech word for word. Even if you must use a script, just glance at key words you’ve marked. Look up at the audience most of the time. • Don’t be afraid to repeat your main thoughts several times. • Don’t put your hands in your pockets. Use them for at least a few simple gestures. • Don’t stand immobile. Move around a bit. Look energetic. • Don’t try to be funny unless you’re really good at it. • Don’t apologize. • Don’t run on too long. Say what you have to say, and then quit.