Chapter 17. America Expands 1850-1900. Western Expansion. Rails to the West. What effect did the railroads have on the development of the American west?. Railroads carried people west. Railroads carried goods back east. Transcontinental. Land grants to railroad companies (20 million acres)
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Chapter 17 America Expands 1850-1900
Western Expansion Rails to the West What effect did the railroads have on the development of the American west?
Railroads carried people west. • Railroads carried goods back east.
Transcontinental • Land grants to railroad companies (20 million acres) • Loans to railroad companies • Union Pacific: Omaha West • Central Pacific: Sacramento East • Race to see who could lay the most track and make the most money.
Labor supply • Union Pacific – Irish • Central Pacific – Chinese • Completed at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869
Western Expansion Resources of the West • Mining • Cattle • Land
Mining • California Gold Rush 1849 • Pikes Peak gold rush 1859 • Silver & lead • Zinc & copper • Comstock Lode, NV • Commercial mines require much capital • No more pick and shovel • Big business
Cattle • Cattle drive • Cowboy culture • Open ranges • Goodnight-Loving Trail • Chisholm Trail
End of the Cattle Drives • Overgrazing • Cold winters 1886 and 1887 • Fencing • Railroad expansion
Western Expansion Settlers and Sodbusters
Acquiring Land • Homestead Act 1862 – 160 acres, live on it 5 years, improve it • Oklahoma Land Rushes – opened Indian Territory to white settlement • Great Plains - “Great American Desert” • Dry farming techniques • Sod houses • Barbed wire
Range Wars • Lincoln County War (New Mexico) • Johnson County War (Wyoming)
Western Expansion Law and Order
Criminals & Lawmen • Why was lawlessness prevalent in the “Wild West?”
Indian Affairs Plains Indians
Indian Affairs Indian Wars
Indian Affairs Sioux War Sioux War Council
Imperialism • “The extension of power by one people or country over another country or region.” • Territory may be acquired by • Purchase • Annexation • Conquest
Critics of Imperialism say: “It is ruthless conquest and brutal exploitation of people and nations for the enrichment of the imperialist nation.”
Benefits of Imperialism • Better medical treatment • Development of natural resources • Improvements in education • Presentation of the Gospel to people who haven’t heard
Alaska • Expansion by purchase • Purchased from Russia in 1867 • Paid $7.2 million (<two cents/acre) • Gold and oil were discovered in Alaska making it a source of enormous wealth.
Pacific Expansion • Midway annexed in 1867 • Samoan islands seized in 1889. (American Samoa) • Hawaii taken in 1890s
Hawaii • Hawaii was an important supply point for whaling, merchant, and war ships since the 1700s (previously called the Sandwich Islands). • Christian missionaries went to the islands in the early 1800s, first with the purpose of sharing Christ, then with a profit motive. They built a thriving sugar industry.
Hawaii • Sometimes rivalries developed between missionaries and “agents of imperialism.” • Hiram Bingham, a Congregationalist missionary, went to Hawaii in 1820. • He helped end prostitution among the Hawaii women and angered white sailors who assaulted him.
Hawaii • Princess Ka’iulani was the daughter of a Hawaiian princess and a Scottish businessman. • She went to school in London and was presented to Queen Victoria at court.
Hawaii • Back home in Hawaii, Americans who had become powerful and wealthy were beginning to control the government of Hawaii and indicated that they would like to annex Hawaii to the United States.
Hawaii • Her uncle, the king, sent her a letter warning her to “be on guard against certain enemies I do not feel free to name in writing.” • Soon Ka’iulani received word that her uncle the king was dead. Her aunt Lilioukalani became queen which meant that, because her mother had died earlier, Ka’iulani was next in line to the throne.
Hawaii • The new queen, who had been a Christian most of her life, stood firm against the businessmen trying to run her government and tried to oust the planter/businessmen from power. • They used a company of U.S. Marines to overthrow her on Jan. 16, 1893. • Lilialuokalani surrendered the throne because she was surrounded by Marines.
Hawaii • Princess Ka’iulani was asked to go to Washington to appeal to President Grover Cleveland to block the annexation of Hawaii. (She was only 17 years old.) • President Cleveland agreed to investigate to find out what was going on.
Hawaii • Ka’iulani returned to school in England. • President Cleveland’s investigation found that “a wrong had been done to the Hawaiians, who were overwhelmingly opposed to annexation.”
Hawaii • President Cleveland ordered Congress to restore the queen to her throne. • Ka’iulani was very happy, but it was not to last. • The haoles (American businessmen) refused to relinquish control, and the president was unwilling to send troops to force them to comply with his orders.
Hawaii • A group of Hawaiian men banded together to revolt against the haoles, but were outmanned and outgunned. They were arrested and were to be executed. • To save their lives Queen Liliuokalani agreed to formally give up her throne and was imprisoned in her palace, tried for treason, sentenced to hard labor for 5 years, and fined $5,000.
Hawaii • Hawaiian kings and queens never ruled Hawaii again. • As soon as President Grover Cleveland left office in 1897, Congress voted to annex Hawaii as a U.S. territory. • As the Americans celebrated, the Hawaiians mourned.
Missions • Some other missionaries besides Hiram Bingham who went out in the 19th century were • Jonathan and Rosalind Goforth (China) • Hudson Taylor (China) • Lottie Moon (China) • There were many others!
Missions • Student Volunteer Movement, established in 1886, called young people to serve overseas as missionaries. Overall, the SVM sent over 20,000 missionaries into the world. • Faith Missions developed during the 19th century. Missionaries had to raise their support to go rather than being paid a salary by a mission board or denomination.
Spanish-American War • In this war, ostensibly to help Cuba become independent from Spanish rule, the United States came into possession of • Cuba (Caribbean) • Puerto Rico (Caribbean) • The Philippines (Pacific) • Guam (Pacific)
Spanish-American War • Other reasons for the U.S. to go to war with Spain: • 1. Yellow Journalism • 2. The deLome letter • 3. The Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
Yellow Journalism • Sensationalized news reporting aimed at gaining readers rather than reporting the truth. • Competition between two New York papers caused them to inflame American sentiments against Spain (in Cuba) in order to get more readers.
De Lome Letter • A letter written by the Spanish ambassador in Washington, de Lome, insulting President McKinley as “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd” was published in the New York Journal. • Americans were offended even though Americans criticized the president in worse terms. • Tensions mounted between the U.S. & Spain.
The Sinking of the Maine • The battleship Maine was anchored in Havana Harbor. On 2/15/1898, the ship exploded and sank, killing 260 American sailors. • The U.S. claimed that the Spanish had mined the ship. • A 1975 investigation showed that the explosion was caused by an accident in the ship’s coal bunkers.
The newspapers continued to inflame Americans against Spain and McKinley finally relented and asked Congress to declare war on Spain if it did not withdraw from Cuba. • Spain refused, and the Spanish-American War resulted.
Teddy Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, without authorization, sent a cable to Admiral Dewey was in the Pacific with his fleet to “Steam to Manila and take the Philippines!” • The Americans won the Battle of Manila.