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Chapter 31. Power and Politics Since 1974. Web. Gerald Ford’s Caretaker Presidency. Domestic Policy Appointed Nelson Rockefeller, a liberal,as his vice president Pardoned Richard Nixon Whip Inflation Now (WIN) campaign Battled with Congress over economic program Foreign Policy

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chapter 31

Chapter 31

Power and Politics Since 1974


gerald ford s caretaker presidency
Gerald Ford’s Caretaker Presidency
  • Domestic Policy
    • Appointed Nelson Rockefeller, a liberal,as his vice president
    • Pardoned Richard Nixon
    • Whip Inflation Now (WIN) campaign
    • Battled with Congress over economic program
  • Foreign Policy
    • South Vietnam collapsed, April 1975
    • Khmer Rouge took control of Cambodia, April 1975
    • Majaguez incident, May 1975
  • Election of 1976
    • Ford challenged for Republican nomination by Ronald Reagan
    • Democrats nominated Jimmy carter
      • Promised to give government back to the people
      • Won a narrow victory
jimmy carter s domestic policy
Jimmy Carter’s Domestic Policy
  • Welfare initiatives
    • Requested additional cash assistance and more jobs for the needy
    • Failed to win congressional approval
  • Energy initiatives
    • Ambitious energy program, pursued unilaterally
      • Decrease reliance on foreign oil and natural gas
      • Expand domestic energy production
      • Discourage gasoline use through new taxes
      • Encourage energy-saving measures to foster conservatism
      • Promote non-Petroleum energy sources
    • Congress rejected
  • Economic initiatives
    • Ambitious economic agenda
      • Lower unemployment and inflation
      • Stimulate greater economic growth
      • Balance federal budget
    • Failed to accomplish any of his goals
    • Economic crisis affected cities and urban areas as well
jimmy carter s foreign policies
Jimmy Carter’s Foreign Policies
  • Amnesty for Vietnam War draft resisters
  • Panama Canal treaties
  • Camp David peace accords’
  • Concern for human rights
    • Best known feature of Carter’s foreign policy
    • Helped to trigger trend toward democratization in 1980s and 1990s
    • Immediate impact was ambiguous
  • Crisis in Iran, November 1979
    • Hostage situation at U.S.Embassy in Tehran
    • Despite constant attention, Carter unable to resolve the situation
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
    • Series of ineffectual, non-Military responses
election of 1980
Election of 1980
  • Edward Kennedy tried to Challenge Carter for Democratic nomination
  • Republicans ran Ronald Reagan
    • Opposition to domestic programs
    • Stronger national defense
    • Seized on economy, traditionally a Democratic issue
    • Won with just over 50 percent of vote

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Presidential Election, 1980

ronald reagan s domestic policies
Ronald Reagan’s Domestic Policies
  • Pursuing supply-side economics
    • Justified tax cuts for wealthy by saying they would stimulate growth
    • Period of non-inflationary growth, 1982-1986
    • Unemployment remained high
  • High government spending resulted huge federal deficits
    • Borrowed abroad and piled up largest foreign debt in the world
  • Economic benefits unevenly distributed throughout society
    • “Underclass” especially hurt
constructing a conservative agenda
Constructing a Conservative Agenda
  • General anti-union policy
    • Air traffic controllers, 1981
  • Appointment of conservatives at all levels
    • Judges and justices
    • Non-judicial appointments
  • Eliminated and reduced some social welfare programs
    • Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
    • Food Stamps
election of 1984
Election of 1984
  • Reagan wildly popular
  • Democrats ran Walter Mondale
    • Expansion of social-welfare programs
    • Higher taxes to pay for expanded programs
  • Reagan won landslide victory
reagan s second term
Reagan’s Second Term
  • Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act of 1985
    • Mandated balanced federal budget by 1991
  • Family Support Act of 1988
    • Mandated training programs for welfare recipients and eventual purging of welfare rolls
  • Supreme Court
    • Appointments of William Rehnquist and Antonin Scalia
    • Defeat of Robert Bork
  • Charges of corruption and mismanagement
    • Savings and loan crisis
reagan s foreign policy
Reagan’s Foreign Policy
  • Renewed Cold War
    • Dramatic increased in defense spending
    • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or Star Wars
  • International Offensive abroad
    • Funded various conservative groups abroad
    • Radio Mart to Cuba
  • CIA activities
    • Aid to anti-Communist forces in Afghanistan
    • Funding for contras in Nicaragua
  • General funding for opposition movements in countries aligned with the soviet Union
  • Willingness to use U.S. Military power
    • Lebanon, 1982
    • Grenada, 1983
iran contra affair
Iran-Contra Affair
  • U.S. aid for contras blocked by Democratic-controlled Congress in 1984
    • Circumvent by having wealthy conservatives and other countries provide aid
  • Against backdrop of violence and kidnappings of Americans and other westerners in Middle east
  • Administration sold arms to Iran in exchange for help in winning release of captives
    • Flew in face of stated policy of not rewarding captors
  • Then funneled profits to contras as way of getting around congressional ban
  • Caused public outcry
  • Investigators unable to paint as serious constitutional crisis
beginning of the end of the cold war
Beginning of the End of the Cold War
  • Thaw in U.S. Soviet relations after 1985
    • Role of Mikhail Gorbachev
      • “Glasnost” and “perestroika”
      • Loosened Moscow’s grip on Soviet Empire
    • Reykjavik summit, October 1986
      • Reagan plan for wholesale ban on nuclear weapons

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Collapse of the Soviet Bloc

george h w bush s domestic policy
George H.W. Bush’s Domestic Policy
  • Election of 1988
    • Republicans nominated Bush, Reagan’s vice-president
    • Democrats nom9inated Michael Dukakis
      • Pledge to bring competence and honesty t0o the White House
      • Avoided talk of taxes and new domestic programs
    • Featured much negative campaigning
    • Bush won, but margin of victory not as large as originally believed
  • Domestic programs
    • Civil Rights Act of 1991
      • Bush failure to veto angered conservatives
    • Accepted new taxes as way of addressing deficit
    • Democratic Congress and Republican White House often approached gridlock
george h w bush s foreign policy
George H.W. Bush’s Foreign Policy
  • End of Cold War
    • Began in Poland in 1989
    • One by one, nations of Eastern Europe overthrew their Communist governments
    • Provinces that comprised the Soviet Union also declared independence
  • Global economy
    • Administration pushed for economic liberalization
  • Redefinition of “national Security”
    • Help to bring democracy to Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala
    • Overthrow of Manuel Noriega in Panama, December 19989
george h s bush s foreign policy cont
George H.S. Bush’s Foreign Policy (cont.)
  • Persian Gulf War
    • Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, August 1990
    • Operation “Desert Shield:”
    • UN action against Iraq
    • Launched military offensive in January 1991
      • Stopped short of removing Saddam Hussein, something the UN had not authorized
    • Temporarily boosted Bush’s popularity
  • Administration not very successful in setting post-Cold war diplomatic goals
  • Mixed foreign policy legacy
election of 1992
Election of 1992
  • Bush lacked coherent vision of either domestic or foreign policy
    • Allowed conservative activists to dominate 1992 Republican Convention
    • Didn’t appeal to democrats who had supported Reagan and then Bush in 1988
  • Democrats ran Bill Clinton
    • Focused on economic issues
      • Increase spending for job creation and long-term growth
      • Comprehensive revision to nation’s health care system
      • Reduce taxes for middle-class Americans
      • Cut the deficit
      • Shrink size of government
    • Won by comfortable margin
bill clinton s domestic policy
Bill Clinton’s Domestic Policy
  • Social Issues
    • Abortion counseling at family planning clinics
    • Family leave for working parents
    • Americorps program
    • Brady Bill
  • Economic issues
  • Tax increase and spending cuts to reduce deficit
  • Setbacks on health care and personal financial history
republican congress democratic white house
Republican Congress, Democratic White House
  • Elections of 1994 brought big GOP victories
    • Contract with America
      • Rolling back federal spending
      • Cutting many programs and government regulations
    • Overplayed hand
      • Public not ready for overt “revolution”Government shutdowns in late 1995 and early 1996 blamed on Republicans
  • Strong economy buoyed Clinton’s presidency
  • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
    • Ended AFDC program
    • Created Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)
      • Each state to formulate its own welfare-to-work program
victory and impeachment
Victory and Impeachment
  • Election of 1996 capped Clinton’s political comeback
    • Defeated Bob Dole and Jack Kemp
  • Legislative cooperation with Republicans
    • Timetable for deficit reduction
  • Public scrutiny of the president’s private life
    • Kenneth Starr investigation
    • Impeachment attempt
  • Economic growth kept Clinton’s popularity high
post cold war foreign policy
Post-Cold War Foreign Policy
  • Clinton had expansive, internationalist vision
  • Debate over when to sue U.S. Military power in localized conflicts
    • Critics feared nation would get sucked into disputes with no clear way out
    • Defenders hailed flexibility and the opportunity to work with allies
  • Efforts to promote peace and defuse conflict
  • Nuclear disarmament efforts
    • Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, 1995
  • Lowering trade barriers and expanding global markets highest priority
  • World Trade Organization
election of 2000
Election of 2000
  • Democrats ran Al Gore
    • Distanced himself from Bill Clinton
    • Probably a mistake
  • Republicans ran George W. Bush
  • Election results initially too close to call
    • Gore carried popular vote by 500,000
    • Electoral college tally hung on results in Florida
      • Original tally gave state to Bush with less than 1,000 vote victory
      • Democrats demanded recount in selected counties
  • Controversy reigned for a month
  • Supreme Court finally intervened
    • Stopped selected recount, saying it was unconstitutional
    • Declared Bush winner by 5-4 margin
      • Five conservative Republicans versus 2 Democrats and two liberal Republicans

©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Presidential Election, 2000

george w bush s domestic policy
George W. Bush’s Domestic Policy
  • Economic downturn
    • Stock Market decline
    • Growing Federal and State deficits
    • Corporate accounting scandals
  • Administration policies
    • Tax cut plan described as an economic stimulus package
    • Energy policy that favored oil companies
    • Controversial educational policy
      • Mandatory nationwide test of children to assess schools’ effectiveness
george w bush s foreign policy
George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy
  • September 11, 2001
    • Bush Doctrine
      • Preemptive war to protect U.S. interests
      • Huge increase in Bush’s approval ratings
  • War on Terrorism
    • Became administration’s foreign policy focus
    • Patriot Act
      • Broad executive branch latitude over surveillance and detention of people considered threats to national security
  • Iraq
    • Administration mounted campaign against Saddam Hussein
      • Aiding terrorists
      • Stockpiling weapons of mass destruction
    • Began preparing for preemptive war in fall of 2002