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Office Systems and Technology

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  1. Office Systems and Technology Chapter 1: Terminology and Basic Concepts of Information Processing

  2. Information Processing • Processed data that is timely, meaningful, and useful • Requires computer hardware, software, and communication channels/networks • Six-step process includes: data origination, input, processing, storage, output, and distribution

  3. 1 Data Origination 2 Data Input 3 Processing 4 Storage 5 Data Input 6 Distribution The Information Processing Cycle

  4. Raw data are organized for processing during the data origination phase Data input can be entered in a batch or online Information is data that has been processed into a usable format Data can be stored for future use using a secondary device Data output communicates the processed information to others Information (reports) can be distributed to users in hard or soft copy formats The Information Processing Cycle

  5. Information Processing Operations • Basic operations include recording, duplicating, verifying, classifying, sorting, merging, calculating, storing and retrieving, summarizing, and report writing • Advantages of using a computer relate to speed, accuracy, consistency, and reliability • Operation modes are designed to facilitate specific business needs

  6. System Types

  7. System Architecture • Clarify the needs of the user for the information system analyst • Be sure computer-based information system is integrated within the organization • Information architecture should include all functional areas and business processes (internally and externally)

  8. Information Technology Infrastructure • Computer hardware • Software • Storage • Data management • Networks Includes all of the technical resources shared within the organization

  9. Early Computers • Charles Babbage, “Father of Computers” (1833) • Mark I, Antanasoff-Berry Computer, ENIAC, EDVAC (1940s) • The first business computer, the UNIVAC (1951–1958)

  10. A New Generation of Computers • Joint effort between business and science (1959–1964) • Logic element used transistors • Internal and secondary storage • Operating system and high level languages • First integrated circuit (1958) • First minicomputer (1965)

  11. Another Computing Era • Computers become more affordable (1965-1970) • Integrated circuit allowed primary memory to store more information • Internal and external storage material improves • Advancements in operating systems and high-level languages • Ted Hoff of Intel, Corp. introduced the microprocessor (1971)

  12. Microcomputer Evolution • MITS Altair, the first microcomputer (1975) • Intel 8080 with 256 bytes of RAM • Kit available for $500 or assembled for $2500 (does not include keyboard or monitor) • Apple computers are introduced (1976) • Apple II became popular followed by the Apple Macintosh • IBM PC, clones, and MS-DOS are introduced (1981) • More than 830,000 machines sold in one year

  13. ARPANET to WWW • ARPANET began as a government project • 20 sites in 1971 • 200 sites in 1981 • Evolved into the Internet in 1990 • The World Wide Web (WWW) • Internet language and Internet addresses created by team lead by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 • By 1993, the Internet grew over 350,000 percent

  14. Computing in the 21st Century • VLSICs allow computers to be smaller, faster, more reliable, and less expensive • Internal storage is mainly semiconductor • Secondary storage utilizes magnetic disks, optical discs, and portable USB flash drives to store data in a small physical space • Systems software is expanded • Internet and WWW have moved business and society into a cyber e-world