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Peer to peer networks Distributed innovation. Niloy Ganguly IIT Kharagpur National Conference on Decentralized Innovation: Focus on Rural and Small Urban Enterprises 16-17 March 2007. Talk Overview. Peer to peer networks Introduction and various utilities P2p in social perspective

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peer to peer networks distributed innovation

Peer to peer networks Distributed innovation

Niloy Ganguly

IIT Kharagpur

National Conference on

Decentralized Innovation:

Focus on Rural and Small Urban Enterprises

16-17 March 2007

talk overview
Talk Overview
  • Peer to peer networks
    • Introduction and various utilities
  • P2p in social perspective
    • Random thoughts
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Ultra cheap Telephony
peer to peer network
Peer To Peer Network

Most Direct Method of Connecting Computers

  • Simple
  • Inexpensive
  • No Boss
  • No Regulation
peer to peer network1
Peer To Peer Network

Most Direct Method of Connecting Computers

  • Simple
  • Inexpensive
  • No Boss
  • No Regulation
peer to peer network2
Peer To Peer Network

PCs at the edge of the network are called “Peers”

Peers can retrieve objects directly from each other

Advantages of a P2P Network

A large collection of peers may be available for content distribution--sometimes millions!

User takes advantage of the network’s currently available resources.

application file sharing
Application – File sharing

P2P networks generate more traffic than any other internet application

2/3 of all bandwidth on some backbones

Machines exchange files within themselves

Each machine shares a set of files

Topology of Gnutella Network

application internet telephony
Application – Internet Telephony

Skype

  • VoIP:
    • Voice over IP (Internet Protocol)
    • Telephony over the Internet
  • Skype:
    • Most popular VoIP application
    • Free calls to other Skype users
    • Cheap calls (~ 1p/min) to landlines & mobiles
    • Various add-on facilities also available
application internet telephony1
Application – Internet Telephony

Skype

  • Skype as a telephone
    • Skype can be used as a conventional telephone
    • Particularly useful on laptops for the traveller
    • Sense of presence – know if recipient is online (can switch off)
    • Instant messaging
  • Additional features:
    • Integration with Web browser (sharing browsing)
    • Video Skype
usage scenarios
Usage Scenarios
  • How Skype can be used:
    • Conventional phone replacement (office/home)
    • On laptops, when travelling
    • Conference calls (on-the-fly)
    • Listening in to lectures (nb. accessibility benefits)
    • Recording talks (e.g. interviews for Podcasts)
    • Support for remote workers
    • Help desk support (e.g. VoIP-based Ask Me reference desk)
    • ….
application distributed processing
Application – Distributed Processing

Huge number crunching for Cancer Research

Seti@Home - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Two million computers crunching

data gathered from the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico.

The project produces over 15 teraflops[4] of processing throughput.

As a comparison, ANSI white, the world's

most powerful supercomputer, produces 12 teraflops

of processing throughput at a cost of us$110 million.

application publisher subscribe

TSX

Stock markets

NASDAQ

NYSE

Publisher

Publisher

AMGN=58

Publications

IBM=84

ORCL=12

JNJ=58

INTC=19

HON=24

MSFT=27

BrokerNetwork

Subscriptions

Notification

Notification

Subscriber

Subscriber

Subscriptions:

IBM > 85

ORCL < 10

JNJ > 60

Application – Publisher Subscribe
talk overview1
Talk Overview
  • Peer to peer networks
    • Introduction and various utilities
  • P2p in social perspective
    • Random thoughts
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Ultra cheap Telephony
slide14

Placing p2p in the context of the evolution of technology

  • Tribal-era technologies – extremities of limbs
  • Agricultural technologies – extension of muscular systems
  • Industrial era – central body and internal metabolic functions
  • Information age – nervous system (telephone and telegraph), mind (computer),
placing p2p in the context of the evolution of technology
Placing p2p in the context of the evolution of technology
  • Participative but not differentiated
  • Differentiated but not participative
    • Humans become dumb extension of machine
  • Machine become intelligent
    • Machine seen as extension of brain rather than limbs
    • A participation paradigm arises
hacker ethics
Hacker ethics
  • Mass intellectuality increases through formal and informal education
  • Meaning in life is no longer sought in the sphere of salaried work but through in life in general.
  • Entertainment is sought through “work” guiding free software production (socialization)
emergence of p2p network
Emergence of p2p network
  • Technological artifacts are a social construction, reflecting various social interests
    • Capital, engineering communities, critical voice within society, consumers
    • Internet was explicitly defined to enable peer-to peer collaboration
    • Technology reflects a new way of being or feeling
emergence of peer to peer network
Emergence of Peer to peer network
  • One-to-one to many-to-one to many-to-many media
  • Information abundance
  • Redundancy of information
  • Hence extremely robust p2p networks emerge
corporate changes
Corporate Changes
  • Fixed arrangement reduces transaction cost
  • For business process, keyword becomes flow and integration of endless flow
corporate changes1
Corporate Changes
  • Fixed arrangement reduces transaction cost
  • For business process, keyword becomes flow and integration of endless flow
  • Flattening of hierarchy
    • Sub-unit becomes complex, hence to be granted more autonomy
    • What is produced and not how is it produced.
    • Peer to peer form of communication is becoming imperative for corporate competitiveness
communism of capital
Communism of Capital
  • Processes no longer internally integrated, externally integrated in vast webs of inter-company cooperation.
  • Potential damaging consumers.
  • Workers learning in a series of interaction/ training program
  • Complexity, innovation-dependent and time-based
  • E-bay, amazon – consumer feedback
distributed innovation open software
Distributed InnovationOpen software
  • Free software – rejects the ownership of software
  • Open Source – ownership is there but one can change
      • Within the systems but partly transcends it
      • Attractive for efficiency
      • Used by IBM and Microsoft’s rival, EU
      • Internet infrastructure – Apache server, Linux
  • P2p dialogues are not representative dialogues in which participants represent their various religions, rather they are encounters of composite and hybrid experience in which each full expresses his different understanding, building a spiritual commons.
distributed innovation deinstitutionalization
Distributed InnovationDeinstitutionalization
  • No formal rules to engage in knowledge exchange (no formal degrees)
  • Open Universities – university of Openness
    • The uo is a framework in which individuals and organizations can pursue their shared interest
    • Any member may start a faculty to socialize their research with the Uo.
  • News regulation (trustworthiness)
    • No need of any Wall Street journal
distributed innovation dot com burst and decommodification
Distributed InnovationDot-com burst and decommodification
  • Dotcom burst shows use value cannot be converted to exchange value
  • P2p creates massive use-value, but no automatic exchange value and thus it cannot fund itself
  • P2p sphere can work with more and more autonomy, creating more and more use value, slowly creating a cohesive system within system
marginal trend or premise of new civilization
Marginal trend or premise of new civilization
  • Historical development of capitalism in 11th to 13th century
  • Roman empire
  • Bernat poirot-delpech in Le Monde – nothing ever changes, we are bored with this country
  • Argentina after the economic shock
talk overview2
Talk Overview
  • Peer to peer networks
    • Introduction and various utilities
  • P2p in social perspective
    • Random thoughts
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Ultra cheap Telephony
emerging technology grid and cluster
Emerging Technology – Grid and cluster

Supercomputer formed by connecting together a number of small computers with high speed interconnectivity

emerging technology adhoc network
Emerging Technology – Adhoc Network

A network where the nodes are the mobile devices.

Mobile devices themselves form connectivity within themselves without the help of any base station

emerging technology mesh network
Emerging Technology – Mesh Network

A network of low cost mesh, some of the meshes having satellite connection

emerging technology delay tolerant network
Emerging Technology – Delay Tolerant Network

No need of connection-oriented network.

Here nodes act as post-man carrying the information to the destination

talk overview3
Talk Overview
  • Peer to peer networks
    • Introduction and various utilities
  • P2p in social perspective
    • Random thoughts
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Ultra cheap Telephony
slide32

Bangladesh (GrameenPhone)

  • A few phones (or just one) cover a whole village
  • ”Telephone ladies” = entrepreneurs: they buy phones and other equipment, & then charge for their use
  • Loans (microcredit) from Grameen Bank, support from Grameen Telecom
  • Grameen Phone uses GSM (not the cheapest technology), but charges ½ the urban rate for local calls (0.04$/min in 2001)
  • Everyone wins!
  • Farmers & other callers save $$
  • Telephone ladies earn well, gain independence & respect
  • Grameen Phone earns $$ (major owner: Telenor!)
  • Grameen Bank earns $$, Nobel Peace Prize
local low cost
Local = low cost

Ruralfone (Brazil)

  • Standard GSM is used, but all equipment is produced in Brazil  low cost
  • Other needed goods purchased locally when possible
  • Employees are all locally hired (except 2 on management team)
  • Intense local interaction & contact with customers
  • Local calls (in town) are cheap
    • unlimited local calls 16$/month, or
    • Plano Basico, local calls, 0.10$/min
  • Launched in Quixadá May 2005, profitable after 10 mos
mesh in the jungle
Mesh in the jungle

Yachana (FUNEDESIN),

Amazonas, Ecuador

  • Isolated complex (2.5 hours by motorized canoe): high school, ecotourism lodge, science center, medical clinic, offices
  • Wireless broadband (WiFi) in a mesh network (many-to-many, so access points are also routers)
  • VoIP over the WiFi mesh
  • Solar power, satellite uplink  VoIP to Skype: cheap, but has a delay
  • Plans to link to the cellphone network
towards ultra cheap telephony telenor r i project
Towards ultra-cheap telephony(Telenor R&I project)
  • Choose wireless broadband in unlicensed band
    • no license fee
    • mass-produced components  low cost
    • mesh topology, smart antennas
    • open source software
    • handset is not (yet) cheap
  • focus on stand-alone but accessible communities
    • local calls can be very cheap
    • estimate: 70—80% of calls are local
  • backhaul: wireless point-to-point connection to nearest town with cellular network
  • A possible cost target: 0.0015$/minute for local calls
what about peer to peer

local

cheap

Internet

P2P; cheap

backhaul

maybe expensive

What about peer-to-peer?
  • P2P works best on top of reliable connections, building an ’overlay network’
  • So other technologies are needed for cheap local access, while P2P can give very cheap connection on a global scale
evolution of collective intelligence
Evolution of Collective Intelligence
  • Tribal Intelligence
  • Pyramidal Structure
  • Swarm Intelligence
  • Collective Intelligence
    • Sufficient money
    • Open standard
    • Information system to regulate symbolic exchange
    • Permanent connection with cyberspace
    • Personal development to acquire the capabilities of such cooperation
cognitive capitalists
Cognitive Capitalists
  • All assets abstracted into stocks, predominance of immaterial flows
  • Knowledge workers clearly becomes the key sector of the multitudes
  • Vectorial class - hacker class producing new means of production
p2p dialogues
P2p Dialogues
  • P2p dialogues are not representative dialogues in which participants represent their various religions , rather they are encounters of composite and hybrid experience in which each full expresses his different understanding, building a spiritual commons.
three scenarios of co existence
Three scenarios of co-existence
  • Peaceful co-existence
  • Cognitive capitalism partly incorporates, partly destroying p2p ethos.
  • P2p sphere can work with more and more autonomy, creating more and more use value, slowly creating a cohesive system within system.