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Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure. Jack Lesko Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute Materials Response Group Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics. How are we going to fix this?. Statistics on Bridges.

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Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Jack Lesko

Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute

Materials Response Group

Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics


How are we Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

going to fix this?


Statistics on bridges
Statistics on Bridges Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • 600,000 Bridges in the US

    • 4-10% in a state of advanced decay

    • 1/3 “structurally deficient" or "functionally obsolete"

    • 132,000 deficiencies attributed to decks decay

  • Cost of rehabilitation$50 billion by the year 2000 or $167 billion for bridges & highways

  • Yet, only $5 billion is annually budgeted


What s being done
What’s being done? Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21) two central goals:

    A.) Reduced user delays

    B.) Deployment of advanced materials (Innovative Bridge & Construction Program)

  • Other Efforts

    • Civil Engineer Research Foundation

    • NIST

    • Composites Institute - CFA/MDA

    • AASHTO

    • ACI


High performance materials status
High Performance Materials Status Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure


Barriers to routine use of hpm

Administrative Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Fragmentation of the materials suppliers, manufacturers, structural engineers & construction industry

Lack of interdisciplinary training for design engineers

Cost (first vs. life cycle)

Limited commercial capital for development of new systems

Incremental - piecemeal approach to FRP bridge design

Technical

Lack of DOT design specifications

Performance vs. Material specification

Lack of sufficient long-term data and experience

Plethora of new materials, additives & combinations

One-for-One material substitution

Connection technologies

Barriers to Routine use of HPM


Composites: Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Directional Stiffness & Strength

Transverse

Longitudinal

T-Transverse

L- Longitudinal

Strength Stiffness

Failure mode

L / T 40:1 25:1


Laminated composites
Laminated Composites Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure


Orthotropy
Orthotropy Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Uni-directional

Cross-ply

Angle-ply

Quasi-Isotropic


Bolted joints orthotropy
Bolted Joints & Orthotropy Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

FRP material and orientation influence failure mode and load


Unidirectional frp vs steel concrete
Unidirectional Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure FRP vs Steel/Concrete

Carbon/Epoxy

E=20-50 Msi

r=0.06lbs./in3

Can we design with a brittle material like FRP?

400

300

200

100

0

Glass/Epoxy

E=7-10 Msi

r=0.07lbs./in3

Stress (ksi)

Steel

E=30 Msi

r=0.28lbs./in3

0 5 10 20 30

Strain (%)


FRP Bridge Decks Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • Rapid rehabilitation technology

  • Raise live load rating by reducing dead load

    Concerns

    • Connections remain a problem (girder-to-deck & guardrail-to-deck)

    • Internal bonding

    • Stiffness criteria for design (L/?)

    • Wearing surface


Deck connections
Deck Connections Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

How do we efficiently, durably and quickly make inter panel and deck to girder connections?


Guradrails for frp decks
Guradrails for FRP Decks Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Guardrails are attached using either top or side mounting


Load resistance factor design lrfd
Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Resistance

Load

Risk

How does one incorporate acceptable design approaches for DOT’s?


Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Structures & Adhesive Systems


Smith road bridge butler county oh
Smith Road Bridge, Butler County, OH Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • 10m (33’) Span

  • 7.3m (24’) Width

  • 0.84m (2’-9”) Depth

  • 10 kg (22 kip) Weight

  • HS20-44

Martin Marietta Materials


Smith road bridge butler county oh1
Smith Road Bridge, Butler County, OH Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Three deck and superstructure elements make up the FRP bridge


Butler county bridge monitoring

Bondline Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

FO gages

Bridge Deck

Internal

FO gages

External

FO gages

Butler County Bridge Monitoring

  • Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) used as a strain sensor

  • “Sapphire” chemical sensors for monitoring adhesive cure and moisture uptake (Foster-Miller)


Intrinsic fabry perot interferometer ifpi
Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

I(l)

l

I(l)

l

li

Wave length sensitivity based on grating size


Field bond line moisture absorption
Field Bond Line -Moisture Absorption Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Bond Line

Adhesive -

Coclesive 1090

(2 Part Epoxy)

Fiber-Optic Sensors in Bond Line:

“Sapphire Fiber Sensors”


Fiber optic sensors sapphire fiber data

Absorbance Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Aug 27th, 1998

Jan 28th, 1998

Nov 17th, 1997

July 8th 1997

3600

3400

3200

3000

2800

Wavelength (cm-1)

Fiber Optic Sensors:Sapphire Fiber Data

Infrared spectroscopy of bondline cure


Fourier transform infrared ftir spectra of derakane 441 400

1 Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

mol

H

0 : 4

mol

OH

2

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)Spectra of Derakane 441-400

Aged in water at 65°C until saturation.

1.15

“OH” Stretch Region

1.10

1.05

1.00

0.95

Aged

0.90

Absorbance

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

Unaged

0.65

0.60

0.55

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

2800

2600

2400

Wavenumbers (cm-1)


Composite Pultrusion Process Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • Constant cross section

  • High volume production


Martin marietta materials inc
Martin Marietta Materials, Inc Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Alliance with

Decks installed or successful bid

IA, NY, PA, MD, OH, CA


Martin marietta materials inc1
Martin Marietta Materials, Inc Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Top surface completion of field joints

Application of the joining adhesive


Creative pultruion
Creative Pultruion Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • Wickwire Run, Aug. 1997

    • 30’ Span

    • 21.7’ Width

    • HS25

  • Laurel Lick, May 1997

    • 20’ Span

    • 16’ Width

    • HS20-44


Bonding of superdeck
Bonding of SuperDeck Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Adhesive bonging area a source of fatigue and strength concerns


Hardcore composites llc
Hardcore Composites, LLC Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

& Zoltek

Market focus: short span, rapid installation, weight savings

5% of bridge rehab market

Cecil County Bridge, MD

9+ decks or bridges in place: DE, NY, PA, OH, MD

Magazine Ditch Bridge, DE


Resin infusion
Resin Infusion Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • SCRIMP™ process

  • Net shape parts

  • Custom tooling

  • Typically room temperature cure

VARTM = Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding


Wilson run bridge valley forge national historic park pa
Wilson Run Bridge, Valley Forge National Historic Park, PA Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • One of the state's oldest wrought iron truss bridges

  • 2- Hour installation

Composites


Hardcore deck installation
Hardcore Deck Installation Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Structural adhesive

Splice plate

Cut-away of splice plate to transfer shear and moment.

The Salem Ave. project in Ohio is presently experiencing problems due to failure of joining technologies used and field installed


Troutville Weigh Station Deck Test Bed Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Section A-A

10 ft.

5’ x 15’ Composite Deck Section

Excavated panel of PCC pavement in weigh station off- ramp

Adjustable/Simulated bridge girders

Traffic

15 ft.

Section A-A

Steel access panels

Plan View

Girder centerline

Facility installed November 1999


Frp deck in service
FRP Deck In-Service Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Troutville, VA Weigh Station

Interstate 81

5,000 vehicles/day

Installed Nov. 1999


Location of damage to deck 2
Location of Damage to Deck #2 Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Foundation girder connections loosen

Deck-to-girder connections loosen

May 2000


Deck connections1
Deck Connections Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

wearing course

steel sleeve

support beam flange

Deck #1

Deck #3

Deck #2

“Hook bolt to tie rod”


Deck 2 service damage
Deck #2 – Service Damage Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Wear surface cracking corresponding to tube widths

Adhesive delamination & tube failure at connection


Frp strengthening
FRP Strengthening Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • External strengthening

  • Hoop reinforcement


External strengthening
External Strengthening Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure


Where to next for adhesives in an frp infrastructure

Where to Next for Adhesives in an FRP Infrastructure? Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure


Snap together connections
Snap Together Connections? Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Courtesy of Brandt Goldsworthy & Associates


Comments frp bridges
Comments: FRP Bridges Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • New structural forms appropriate for FRP ($, manufacturability, constructability)

  • Vertical integration of industry, design, and construction

  • Emphasis on joining & connections

  • Must beat other/conventional designs on first and or installed cost

  • Interdisciplinary effort - education


What s needed
What’s Needed? Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

  • Integration of the adhesive folks with the Civil Infrastructure folks

  • Design and manufacturing approach for “off-the-shelf” deck system

  • Connection designs for rehabilitation situations

  • Design approaches to field installation of adhesive bonds

  • Design approach including reliability and warrantee assessment

  • Crash tested guard-rails for FRP decks and girder system bridges

Near-Term

Long-Term


Questions
QUESTIONS Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure


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