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Studying The Brain. Lesson 6-2. Objectives. Identify the structure and functions of the human brain Discuss the different ways psychologists study the brain. Introduction. Early Greeks thought the heart was the source of feelings and thought

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • Identify the structure and functions of the human brain
  • Discuss the different ways psychologists study the brain
introduction
Introduction
  • Early Greeks thought the heart was the source of feelings and thought
  • Hippocrates observed the effects of head injuries on people’s thoughts.
the three brains
The Three Brains
  • Hindbrain
    • at base of the skull
    • controls most life processes (eating, sleep, appetite, thirst, mating)
    • includes cerebellum, medulla and pons

Brain

hindbrain
Hindbrain
  • cerebellum- controls posture and balance
  • medulla- controls breathing
  • pons- bridges messages between brain and spinal cord

Brain

midbrain
Midbrain
  • Integrates sensory information and relays it

Brain

forebrain
Forebrain
  • Includes thalamus- integrates sensory information, except smell
  • hypothalamus- controls hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior

Brain

forebrain1
Forebrain
  • Allows for higher level thinking
  • Outer layer is called cerebral cortex
  • Inner layer is the cerebrum

Brain

activity
Activity
  • Color the brain according to hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
  • Label structure and function:
    • thalamus - cerebellum
    • pituitary gland -cerebral cortex
    • pons -spinal cord
    • medulla
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lobes of the brain
Lobes of the Brain
  • Cerebrum is two sides
  • Corpus Callosum is a band of fibers that connects the two sides
  • Deep grooves that forms lobes
lobes of the brain1
Lobes of the Brain
  • Occipital Lobe- processes visual info
  • Parietal Lobes- Sensory information
  • Temporal Lobe- hearing, memory, emotion, speaking
  • Frontal Lobe- organization, planning, creative thinking, and personality
psychosurgery
Psychosurgery
  • A prefrontal lobotomy has been preformed many times to alter psychopathic behavior
    • are very controversial when preformed on prisoners
      • informed consent
      • role of prisons
brain and criminal behavior
Brain and Criminal Behavior
  • Recent studies show that men convicted of violent crimes are more likely to have abnormalities of their frontal lobe and their right hemisphere.
activity1
Activity
  • Color and label the lobes of the brain
left and right hemispheres
Left and Right Hemispheres
  • Are almost mirror images
  • Left brain controls the right side of the body
    • controls speech for most people
    • controls mathematical ability and logic
left and right hemispheres1
Left and Right Hemispheres
  • Right hemisphere controls left side of the body
    • visual and spatial ability
      • puzzles
    • recognizing patterns
      • music and art
    • creativity and intuition
split brain operations
Split Brain Operations
  • Corpus Callosum- lets right brain know what left brain is doing
  • right brain- sees the sunset
  • left brain- describes the sunset
split brain operations1
Split-Brain Operations
  • In Epileptics, split the corpus callosum to decrease number of seizures
  • seizure is massive uncontrolled electrical activity that begins in either hemisphere and spreads to the other
split brain operations2
Split-Brain Operations
  • Roger Sperry did experiments on people with split brain operations
    • Nobel Peace prize in 1981
  • Holds ball in right hand can say it is a ball, but put in left hand, can’t say it is a ball.
  • Showed each half had specialized functions
activity2
Activity
  • Right brain or left brain??
how psychologists study the brain
How Psychologists Study the Brain
  • Physiological Psychologists or Psychobiologists study the role of the brain in behavior
recording
Recording
  • Electrodes- can be inserted into the brain to record electrical activity
  • electroencephalograph- EEG records electrical activity from whole areas of the brain
  • See p. 167
stimulation
Stimulation
  • Electrodes can be used to set off the firing of neurons
  • Stimulate brains of patients during surgery to find out what function they perform
  • have been used to relieve pain of terminally ill cancer patients
  • experimented with use to control violent emotional behavior
lesions
Lesions
  • Cut or destroy a small portion of an animals brain
  • They then monitor the animal for changes in behavior
  • Assume those changes are controlled by that part of the brain
  • Rhesus monkey study
    • no longer fearful and aggressive
accidents
Accidents
  • 1848- Phineas Gage
    • RR foreman
    • showed good judgement, restraint, worked well with others
  • tamping iron enters Gage’s head right below left eye (13 pounds, 3 feet long)
  • survived, but personality changed greatly
accidents1
Accidents
  • Dr. Paul Broca discovered the connection between left brain and speech
    • area now called Broca’s area
images
Images
  • Computer Axial Tomography (CAT)
    • xrays pass around and through a person’s head
    • radiation absorbed based on density of brain tissue
    • transforms into a 3 dimensional picture
images1
Images
  • Positron Emission Topography (PET)
    • captures a picture as different parts are being used
    • Uses a radioactive solution into the blood and then measures the amount absorbed by blood cells.
images2
Images
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • study both structures and activity
    • pass radio frequencies through the brain
    • used to identify tumors or brain damage
closure
Closure
  • Web activity from prentice hall site
  • Read articles on brain injury on prentice hall site and report to class. Each student reads a different one.
  • Web activity- Probe the brain
  • Research a brain disorder