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Sensation and Perception. THE SENSES. The process by which physical energy from objects in the world or in the body stimulates the sense organs. Measuring The Senses Psychologists assess the acuity of the senses in three ways: Measuring the absolute threshold

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Sensation and Perception


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the senses
THE SENSES
  • The process by which physical energy from objects in the world or in the body stimulates the sense organs
slide3
Measuring The Senses
    • Psychologists assess the acuity of the senses in three ways:
      • Measuring the absolute threshold
      • Measuring the difference threshold
      • Applying signal detection theory
slide4
Absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulation required for a person to detect the stimulus 50% of the time
slide5
Difference threshold is the smallest difference in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
slide7
Sensory Adaptation
    • The decrease in sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus
slide8
Development of the Senses
    • Babies have all the basic sensory abilities & many perceptual skills, they develop & grow more sensitive over time
vision
VISION
  • Has been studied more thoroughly than the other senses
  • Would not exist without the presence of light
    • Light is electromagnetic radiation that travels in the form of waves
eye physiology
Eye Physiology
  • The human eye is about one inch in diameter
structure of the eye
Structure of the Eye
  • The cornea is the transparent, protective outer membrane of the eye
slide15
The iris surrounds an opening called the pupil, which can get bigger or smaller to allow different amounts of light through the lens to the back of the eye.
slide16
The lens, which lies behind the pupil and iris, can adjust its shape to focus light from objects that are near or far away. This process is called accommodation.
rods and cones
Rods and Cones
  • Rods are sensitive to only degrees of brightness
  • Rods are specially adapted for sensing stimuli at low levels of light, like at twilight or at night
rods and cones18
Rods and Cones
  • Cones are receptors specialized for seeing color
  • Cones function only in daylight
  • In humans, cones cluster around the center of the retina
optic disc
Optic Disc
  • Rods and cones connect with bipolar cells, these cells connect with large ganglion cells
    • The axons of these ganglia are bundled together and leave the retina at the optic disc
optic nerve
Optic Nerve
  • Each optic nerve can be thought of as two separate bundles corresponding to they receptors in the left and right side of the retina
slide22
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel showed in the 1960s that highly specialized cells, called feature detectors, respond to visual signals in the primary visual cortex
trichromatic theory
Trichromatic Theory
  • Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz proposed the trichromatic theory, or Young-Helmholtz theory.
    • This theory states that the retina contains three types of cones, which respond to light of three different wavelengths, corresponding to red, green, or blue.
the opponent process theory
The Opponent-Process Theory
  • Ewald Hering proposed the opponent process theory.
    • According to this theory, the visual system has receptors that react in opposite ways to three pairs of colors.
    • The three pairs of colors are red versus green, blue versus yellow, and black versus white.
gestalt psychology
Gestalt Psychology
  • School of thought (Germany – early 20th century), explored how people organize visual information into patterns and forms
slide38
Binocular cues require both eyes
    • Help estimate the distance of nearby objects
    • Retinal disparity & Convergence
slide39
Monocular cues require only one eye
    • Help us estimate the distance of objects:
      • interposition, motion parallax, relative size & clarity, texture gradient, linear perspective, and light & shadow
perceptual constancy41
Perceptual Constancy
  • Perceptual constancy also helps us make sense of the world
    • The ability to recognize that an object remains the same even when it produces different images on the retina
  • Perceptual constancy relates to the other senses also, but visual constancy is the most studied
visual illusions
Visual Illusions
  • An illusion is a misrepresentation of a sensory stimulus
    • Can occur in other senses, but most research has been done on visual illusions
perceptual set44
Perceptual Set
  • Perceptual set is the readiness to see objects in a particular way based on expectations, experiences, emotions, and assumptions
selective attention46
Selective Attention
  • Selective attention is the ability to focus on some bits of sensory information and ignore others
loudness
Loudness
  • Depends on amplitude, or height, of sound waves
pitch
Pitch
  • Though influenced by amplitude, depends most on frequency of sound waves
timbre
Timbre
  • Depends on the complexity of a sound wave
slide54
The middle ear:
    • Eardrum
    • Malleus (hammer)
    • Incus (anvil)
    • Stapes (stirrup)
slide55
The inner ear:
    • Semicircular canals
    • Vestibular sacs (vestibule)
    • Cochlea
place theory
Place Theory
  • explains how people discriminate high-pitched sounds that have a frequency greater than 5000 Hz
frequency theory
Frequency Theory
  • explains how people discriminate low-pitched sounds that have a frequency below 1000 Hz
taste
Taste
  • Taste, or gustation, happens when chemicals stimulate receptors in the tongue and throat, on the inside of the cheeks, and on the roof of the mouth.
smell
Smell
  • Smell, or olfaction, happens when chemicals in the air enter the nose during the breathing process.
gate control theory of pain
Gate-Control Theory of Pain
  • In the 1960s, Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall proposed an important theory about pain called the gate-control theory of pain.
    • Gate-control theory states that pain signals traveling from the body to the brain must go through a gate in the spinal cord.
    • If the gate is closed, pain signals can’t reach the brain.