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The North American Colonies. A Background. Key Questions. Who came here? Who was already here? Who are the key players (people & nations) Why did they come? Where did they settle? How does this lead to differences between the colonies?. European Exploration. Fueled by the Renaissance

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key questions
Key Questions
  • Who came here?
  • Who was already here?
  • Who are the key players (people & nations)
  • Why did they come?
  • Where did they settle?
  • How does this lead to differences between the colonies?
european exploration
European Exploration
  • Fueled by the Renaissance
    • The “questioning spirit”
  • Seeking trade routes
    • Cheaper goods
    • More profit
    • More money = more power for monarchs
  • Scientific developments
    • Compass
    • caravel
spain makes claims
Spain Makes Claims
  • 1492
    • Spain united & Muslims driven out
    • Spain to rival Portugal
    • Columbus sails west to go east
    • October lands in Bahamas
spanish claims
Spanish Claims
  • Caribbean Islands
  • Mexico
  • Peru
  • Florida
  • What was to be come the western United States
question time
Question Time!
  • What language is the dominant language in the Canadian city of Toronto?
      • English
  • What language is the dominant language in the Canadian cities of Montreal and Quebec?
      • French
  • Why?!
the creation of new france
The Creation of New France
  • The Northwest Passage
    • Fabled route through N. America to Pacific Ocean
  • French sent explorers to find it
    • Multiple explorations made
    • No passage found
    • No vast wealth found
    • Great fishing of Newfoundland
      • Why is this important?
the creation of new france1
The Creation of New France
  • 1602: Samuel de Champlain hired to found colony in Canada
    • Set up a primarily Huguenot colony
    • Very friendly with the Indians
    • Many Huguenots traded with Canada; few settled there
    • Catholic priests (Jesuits) eagerly converted Indians
    • Catholicism became only religion of New France
the creation of new france2
The Creation of New France
  • New France created to make money through fur trade and timber not farms
    • Few settled in New France
  • French continued to explore N. America
    • Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet found Mississippi River
    • They claimed region for Louis XIV & called it Louisiana
the creation of new france3
The Creation of New France
  • Mississippi Gulf region terrible for living but great for growing sugar, rice & indigo
    • Slaves definitely needed for labor
  • French colonized St Domingue& Martinique
    • Primarily sugar plantations here
  • Attempted settlements in the Carolinas
    • Spanish created St Augustine in Florida to counter the French
  • What were some of the reasons behind Europeans starting to explore N. America beginning in the late 15th century?
  • What territories did the Spanish claim in N. America?
  • Who founded New France?
  • What major river did Marquette & Joliet find?
the dutch
The Dutch
  • Profit motivated the Dutch
    • Relatively tolerant; not overly religious
  • Founded Dutch East India Co. to compete with Portugal in East Indies & looked to expand into N. America
  • Dutch sent Henry Hudson to explore and sailed up river that now bears his name
the dutch1
The Dutch
  • Dutch refugees built fort at Fort Orange (Albany) but not permanent
  • Dutch claimed Hudson, Delaware & Connecticut valleys
  • Dutch bought Mannahatta Island (Manhattan) from Indians
  • Permanent Fort Orange established for fur trade with Iroquois
the dutch2
The Dutch
  • Created a pluralist society
    • Not just Dutch or Protestant
      • 1640s: 18 different languages spoken by 450 inhabitants of New Amsterdam (NY)
    • Tough to create unity against Indians or other Europeans
the english arrive finally
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • English made loose claim to N. American coast due to Cabot’s expedition to find Northwest Passage in 1497
    • He failed & England ignored the new world for 80 years
  • England’s attention was taken by Protestant Reformation & war with Spain
    • Colonization would have to wait
the english arrive finally1
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • Henry VIII breaks with Catholic Church
  • Forms Church of England (Protestant)
    • Son Edward VI takes over embraces Protestantism
    • Daughter Mary takes over & embraces Catholicism
    • Daughter Elizabeth takes over embraces Protestantism
  • Under Elizabeth I, England would begin to settle N. America
the english arrive finally2
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • Under James I, those who wished to “purify” the Anglican Church received permission to settle in New World
    • Puritans would wind up in Plymouth in modern Massachusetts
  • Joint-stock companies formed to fund the settlement of colonies in New World
    • What is the point of having a business?
the english arrive finally3
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • English attempted to make settlements on the east coast including in the Carolinas
    • Failed Roanoke colony
  • 1607: Virginia Company charted
    • Attempted one colony in Maine (failed) & one in Chesapeake Bay are
    • 104 settlers created Jamestown on James River
the english arrive finally4
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • Jamestown
    • Unhealthy
      • Malaria, typhus, dysentery
    • Drought
    • “gentlemen”
    • “starving time” winter of 1609-1610
    • Colony abandoned but quickly resettled
the english arrive finally5
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • Jamestown settlers forced to work
    • Governed by company who could make the rules
      • Religion?
  • Tobacco introduced as cash crop
    • Soon grown in every available space in the colony
  • 1618: colonists granted right to create first General Assembly to make laws for colony
    • Met in July 1619
    • Called House of Burgesses
the english arrive finally6
The English Arrive. Finally.
  • Headright system introduced to increase settlement
    • Colonists received 50 acres of land for every person whose passage to Virginia they paid for
  • 1619: first Africans delivered by the Dutch
    • Servants, not slaves
    • Slaves imported by 1622
  • Founded by Catholic George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
    • Charter granted for colony to be established for Catholics to practice freely
    • Colony owned by Baltimore
      • Proprietary colony
      • Could do whatever he wished so long as it was not against English law

George Calvert,

Lord Baltimore

the puritans
The Puritans
  • What is the root of the word?
  • Puritans in England fled to Netherlands to escape persecution
    • Children becoming “too Dutch”
    • Joined with Puritans in England to raise money to sail to America
    • Got permission from Virginia Company to settle in their colony
    • Mayflower sailed for Virginia September 1620
the puritans1
The Puritans
  • Mayflower eventually landed at Plymouth Bay
    • Theywere outside of the Virginia Co. territory & were squatters (no permission to be there)
    • Pilgrims drew up Mayflower Compact
      • Not a constitution but an agreement to follow majority rule
    • First winter difficult; more than half died
      • Second harvest bountiful; basis for Thanksgiving
  • Who settled the Hudson, Connecticut & Delaware valleys?
  • What motivated the Dutch to create colonies?
  • Why did England wait so long to settle in N. America?
  • Who founded Maryland and what kind of colony was it?
  • What is the headright system?
massachusetts bay
Massachusetts Bay
  • 1625: Charles I persecutes Puritans
    • English economy weakens
  • 1629: Charter obtained from king for Massachusetts Bay Co.
    • Going to establish colony in New England
  • 1630: 1000 settlers (not all Puritans) settle in Salem
    • Charter is basis for colony’s laws
massachusetts bay1
Massachusetts Bay
  • 1630: John Winthrop: “We shall be as a city on a hill”
    • Looking to create Puritan utopia
  • 1643: between 13-20K settlers arrived
  • Government based on charter which was not made public knowledge
    • Why?!
massachusetts bay2
Massachusetts Bay
  • Colony’s charter provided for a General Court
    • Made up of “freemen”
      • Essentially stockholders & family heads
  • General court chose “assistants” who in turn chose governor and assistant governor
  • Winthrop violated charter & claimed he had power to make the laws
  • Charter gave that power to General Court
massachusetts bay3
Massachusetts Bay
  • General Court eventually became representative body made of representatives from the various towns
    • Membership in a church became requirement to vote (not stock ownership)
  • Winthrop was attempting to preserve Puritan purity
massachusetts bay4
Massachusetts Bay
  • Maintaining Puritan purity very difficult
    • Not everyone was a Puritan
    • Merchant class favored toleration
    • More settlers meant more business meant more money and power
    • Excessive punishments for gambling, adultery, & blasphemy
    • Dissenting views not accepted; heretics thrown out
rhode island
Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams irritated everyone
    • Puritan churches not pure; no church can be pure
    • King cannot give away land of another people (Indians)
    • There must be complete separation of church & state
      • Laws requiring religious conformity were bad
rhode island1
Rhode Island
  • Williams arrested & to be sent back to England
    • Escaped and settled in Providence
    • Government had no authority over religion
    • Dissenters welcome
  • Anne Hutchinson also questioned established Puritan thinking & was banished to Rhode Island
  • Who said “we shall be as a city on a hill?”
  • What did he mean?
  • How do the Puritans “create” Rhode Island?
  • Which segment of Massachusetts Bay favored religious toleration and why?
  • What gave a person the right to vote in Massachusetts?
new york new jersey
New York & New Jersey
  • New Amsterdam settled by Dutch in 1620s
    • Dutch claimed NY due to Hudson’s exploration in 1609
  • Charles II claimed NY for England because it was part of the Virginia Charter of 1606
  • 1664: English fleet sent to NY; Dutch surrendered without fight
new york new jersey1
New York & New Jersey
  • NY was buffer between Iroquois 5 Nations & settlers
  • James’ colony was without an elected assembly; Dutch don’t mind so much but English get irritated
  • Land to west of Hudson given to 2 Carolina proprietors to create colony of New jersey
new york new jersey2
New York & New Jersey
  • English more inclined to settle in NJ with its elected assembly & religious freedom
    • Dutch stayed in NY
  • NJ cut into 2 separate colonies, East & West & reunited in 1702
  • Literally, “Penn’s forested land”
  • Supposed to be refuge for Quakers
    • Quakers: refused to take oaths (loyalty) and were pacifists
      • How will these positions make the other colonists feel?
  • Land came from debt owed to William Penn’s father by English crown
  • NJ’s religious freedom enticed Quakers to settle there & they migrated to west side of Delaware River
  • Penn kept relations with Indians positive
    • Quakers were pacifists who bought Indian lands
      • Peace for 50 years as a result
  • Created free government
    • Male, property-owning taxpayers could vote
    • Governor had no veto
    • No established church
    • Freedom from/of religion
  • Penn later bought 3 counties south of Pennsylvania which eventually became Delaware
the carolinas
The Carolinas
  • Named for Charles II
  • Originally one large colony with 2 distinct regions
  • Colony granted to 8 “True and Absolute Lords & Proprietors”
  • North largely under-developed while SC later developed rice & indigo cultivation
  • Named for George II
  • Established by James Ogelthorpe as refuge for England’s poor
  • No rum, slavery (to leave room for the poor), or brandy allowed in
  • Efforts to develop silk & wine production failed
  • Charter expired in 1759 & GA became royal colony