Analyzing and Examining Student Work. Day 2. Welcome Back. In your group process… You practiced analyzing student work What purpose did you have for your analysis? (What question are you answering?) What essential questions did you use to analyze the student work? Curriculum Environment
Welcome Back • In your group process… • You practiced analyzing student work • What purpose did you have for your analysis? (What question are you answering?) • What essential questions did you use to analyze the student work? • Curriculum • Environment • Instruction • Student • Be prepared to reflect and share this morning
Analyzing Student Work • Provide a brief background on the student work • Type of task • Curriculum objective • Share what you learned from analyzing student work • One Aha • One new question it raised
Continuum of Support Specialized Individual Support 1-7% (Individual Student System) Interventions 5-15% (At-Risk System) Universal Programs for All Students 80-90% (School-Wide & Classrooms Systems) All Students in School (Horner, 1998)
Assessment Reflection Planning Assessment Instruction Assessment Student Outcomes
Curriculum What we teach Environment Context of learning Instruction How we teach Student Outcomes of Learning What Do We Assess?
Professional Development ModelExamining Student Work Examining student work has always been part of a teacher’s job. But, in recent years, that practice has moved from being a solitary activity to being a more collaborative effort in which teachers learn about their practice by sharing with and listening to colleagues. Tools for Schools, NSDC, Feb/March 2001
Analyzing Student Work To reflect upon instructional practice as it relates to an individual student’s progress or the progress of a targeted group of students To make instructional decisions focused upon specific a student or a specific group of students Examining Student Work To reflect upon instructional practice as it relates to the learning of all students To make instructional decisions about universal practices about general curriculum Analyzing & Examining Student Work Purpose
Analyzing Student Work Occurs as an individual, partners, or a specific small group of colleagues Focuses upon a targeted student’s work (purposefully selected) Is designed to support problem-solving and meeting the specific instructional needs of a student or a targeted group of students Examining Student Work Occurs only with a small group of colleagues Focuses on any student’s work (more randomly selected) Is designed to structure reflective dialogue for a group of professionals in order to enhance the instructional practice of those individuals Analyzing & Examining Student Work Characteristics
Individual Support School-Wide Analyzing and Examining Student Work Address Intensity of Need for a Few Students Close Achievement/ Performance Gaps for Some Students Ensuring Effective Instructional Practices and Promoting Positive Educational Outcomes for All Students All Students in School (Horner, 1998)
Timed-Pair-Share Turn to your shoulder partner. Dialogue about the differences between analyzing and examining student work • Partner A speaks for 1 min, while Partner B listens. • Partner B speaks for 1 min, while Partner A listens.
So How Does It Feel? • How did it feel to be the listener? • How did it feel to be the speaker? • What does this tell us about listening? A Crucial Skill for Examining Student Work – LISTENING! NOW HEAR THIS….
Effective Listening • Paraphrase • Clarify • Summarize • Ask questions • Use non-verbal cues • Validate • Keep focused • Silence
Descriptive Review • Review the Process • The facilitator provides the directions and timelines for the process. • Setting the Tone • The group reviews the intention of the process. The group agrees to the reflective process.
Descriptive Review • Work is Presented/Context • Teacher puts the work out for the team to see and provides a brief introduction to the work. • Descriptive Rounds • Selection of rounds is based on type of work and focus of reflection. Each round builds on the previous one, seeking to deepen an appreciation for the instruction, task, and student learning.
Descriptive Review • Hearing from the Teacher • Presenter has time to say what was heard. • Reflecting • The group reflects on the process. • Each member highlights what was learned.
Descriptive Review • Review the Process • We need 4-6 volunteers to model this protocol. • The rest will respond to the questions on post-its. One idea per post-it please. • Setting the Tone • We will focus on our listening skills.
Descriptive Review • Work is Presented/Context • I am a kindergarten teacher who has asked the students to draw a picture about a trip to the zoo. This activity was intended to asses prior knowledge for students before reading a text about the zoo. This is one of my student’s drawings. I would like to learn more about what background knowledge he has and how to use this information to develop a pre-reading activity.
Descriptive Review • Hearing from the Teacher • I heard you say… • Reflecting • Let’s reflect on our comments.
Descriptions See, Hear, Touch Evidence based Specific language Judgments Inferences Feelings Assumptions Descriptions vs. Judgments Perceptions
Examine Your Post-its • Sort your post-its. • Descriptions • Judgments A Crucial Skill for Examining Student Work – Use Descriptions Only!
Types of Questions • Opening Thinking • Inquire • Explore • Extend focused statements • Invite a wide-range • “What are some of the ways you noticed the students demonstrated their learning? L. Lipton & B. Wellman, 2003
Types of Questions • Focusing Thinking • Detail • Clarify • Refine vague statements • Probe for specifics • “The students did not understand the directions.” “What did you see the students doing when you finished the directions?” L. Lipton & B. Wellman, 2003
Examine Your Post-its • Sort your post-its. • Open Thinking • Focused Thinking A Crucial Skill for Examining Student Work – Be Strategic in the Types of Questions You Use.
Providing Reflective Feedback • Describe the behavior, not person • Use observations, avoid inferring • Seek to understand, not to judge • Provide ideas, not answers • Validate ideas, rather than oppose
Examine Your Post-its • Sort your post-its. • Objective ideas • Answers/Judgments A Crucial Skill for Examining Student Work – Provide objective ideas that provide an open perspective.
Standards in Practice • Setting the Tone • The group reviews the intention of the process. The group agrees to the reflective process. • Completing the Assignment • The group actually does the assignment as it was describe to the students.
Standards in Practice • Identifying Standards • Group takes the standards they are using and find those standards to which this assignment might be directed. • Creating a Scoring Guide • Construct a scoring guide (rubric) for this specific assignment. The range should be 4=ideal work, to 1=minimal effort. The rubric must include words denoting quality.
Standards in Practice • Scoring the Work • Participants use the scoring guide to score the student work, first individually then as a team. • Summarize results • Does this work meet the standards? “Was the assignment well designed to help students achieve the standards?” • If not, what are we going to do about it? Create an action plan.
Stations • We will rotate through three stations. • Each station will be 30 minutes. • Rotate clockwise. • Stations • Case Story • Chalk Talk • Computer Web Searches
Chalk Talk • Format: A non-verbal dialogue about a question • Purpose: To gain perspectives and insights on an issue • Roles: • Facilitator-presents the question and monitors the non-verbal process • Group member- responds to question in writing • Time Frame: 15-60 minutes
Chalk Talk • Steps: • Facilitator explains the process, stressing that it is silent. • Facilitator writes a question on the board. • Either each person gets a piece of chalk/marker or several pieces of chalk/markers are randomly distributed. • Participants write on the board as they feel moved. • Long pauses are normal and acceptable. The facilitator should provide plenty of wait time.
Chalk Talk • Steps: • Facilitator can choose to • Stand back and allow to unfold • Circle interesting ideas, therefore inviting comments • Write questions about a participant • Add his/her own ideas • Connect comment together with a line or a question mark • When it is done, it is done
Chalk Talk • How can we structure our environment so that co-operative learning can occur without the typical movement and noise level of one group interfering with another group?
Case Story • Format: A presentation of a story • Purpose: To understand the presenter’s dilemma and offer suggestions • Roles: • Presenter-presents the story • Facilitator-facilitates group discussion • Group member-reviews and discusses story • Time Frame: 30-45 minutes