Sao Paulo – Housing Solutions • What are the problems? • Rapid growth leads to: • Inadequate housing and services. 40% live in Shanty towns. • Shanty town services are non-existent leading to a low standard of living. • Shortage of affordable formal housing. • Shanty towns form on inappropriate land, e.g. liable to flooding. • Collapsing infrastructure, roads, sewerage etc. • Increasing levels of pollution. • Increased volume of traffic on poor roads. • Lack of employment increases the informal sector.
1. Clearance of the slums: In the past the authorities tried to clear the slums - people just moved elsewhere.
2. Site and service schemes: These are schemes whereby the government will provide a site (a small concrete ‘hut’) and basic amenities such as water and sewer facilities. The migrant is given rights of ownership and then expected to complete the work at his or her expense. This is often done as a cooperative between groups of migrants. In other situations, the authorities just provide the plot and building materials for the migrants to construct their own homes. These schemes are relatively cheap and give the migrants a sense of control over their future. They also encourage community spirit.
3. Rehabilitation(Multiroes self-help schemes): An alternative to this scheme is to provide the residents of the shanty towns with the materials to improve their existing shelters. Residents are also encouraged to set up community schemes to improve education and medical services. Residents may also be given rights of ownership whilst local authorities come in and provide electricity, water and sewerage disposal. e.g. Favella Monte AzulIt is a cheaper option than the site and service schemes but simply hides the real problems. The germs may not have been removed, the land still unsuitable and the water/sewer system still not adequate.
4. Housing developments: Large areas of shanty towns were cleared, tower blocks built and the shanty town residents re-housed. e.g. Cingapura Housing Project
Large areas of shanty towns were cleared, tower blocks were then built in their place often on very steep land to house the shanty town residents. One example is the CINGAPURA HOUSING project. This has not been seen as a total success
5. Charities:charity projects provide jobs and other benefits such as pensions and medical care. e.g. Focolare Movement
6. Transport:Transport - underground metro system - improves movement of people and reduces pollution, new roads, new train and bus services, pedestrianised CBD and parking restrictions.
7. Industrial estates: New industrial estates with water, sewerage and electricity are located close to the favelas to provide business premises and jobs