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Distributed Systems Concepts and Design Chapter 10: Peer-to-Peer Systems

Distributed Systems Concepts and Design Chapter 10: Peer-to-Peer Systems

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Distributed Systems Concepts and Design Chapter 10: Peer-to-Peer Systems

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  1. Distributed Systems Concepts and Design Chapter 10: Peer-to-Peer Systems Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  2. 10.1: Introduction • Peer-to-Peer Systems • Where data and computational resources are contributed by many hosts • Objective to balance network traffic and reduce the load on the primary host • Management requires knowledge of all hosts, their accessibility, (distance in number of hops), availability and performance. • They exploit existing naming, routing, data replication and security techniques in new ways Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  3. 10.1: Introduction • Goal of Peer-to-Peer Systems • Sharing data and resources on a very large scale • ‘Applications that exploit resources available at the edges of the Internet – storage, cycles, content, human presence’ (Shirky 2000) • Uses data and computing resources available in the personal computers and workstations Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  4. 10.1: Introduction • Characteristics of Peer-to-Peer Systems • Each computer contributes resources • All the nodes have the same functional capabilities and responsibilities • No centrally-administered system • Offers a limited degree of anonymity • Algorithm for placing and accessing the data • Balance workload, ensure availability • Without adding undue overhead Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  5. 10.1: Introduction • Evolution of Peer-to-Peer Systems • Napster – download music, return address • Freenet, Gnutella, Kazaa and BitTorrent • More sophisticated – greater scalability, anonymity and fault tolerance • Pastry, Tapestry, CAN, Chord, Kademlia • Peer-to-peer middleware Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  6. 10.1: Introduction • Evolution (Continued) • Immutable Files, (music, video) • GUIDs (Globally Unique Identifiers) • Middleware to provide better routing algorithms, react to outages • Evolve to mutable files • Application within one company’s intranet Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  7. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy • Napster • Provided a means for users to share music files – primarily MP3s • Launched 1999 – several million users • Not fully peer-to-peer since it used central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files they provided, while actual transactions were conducted directly between machines • Proved feasibility of a service using hardware and data owned by ordinary Internet users Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  8. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  9. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy • Bit Torrent • Designed and implemented 2001 • Next generation from Napster - true Peer To Peer (P2P) • Can handle large files e.g WAV, DVD, FLAC (e.g 1CD = approx 500KB) • After the initial pieces transfer from the seed, the pieces are individually transferred from client to client. The original seeder only needs to send out one copy of the file for all the clients to receive a copy • Tracker URL hosted at Bit Torrent site e.g Traders Den Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  10. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy • Bit Torrent (contd) • Many Bit Torrent clients e.gVuze • Keep track of seeders and leechers • Torrent –contains metdata about the files to be shared and about the tracker • Tracker - coordinates the file distribution, and which controls which other peers to download the pieces of the file. Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  11. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  12. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  13. 10.2: Napster and Its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  14. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  15. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  16. 10.2: Napster and its Legacy Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  17. 10.3: Peer-to-Peer Middleware • Peer To Peer Middleware • To provide mechanism to access data resources anywhere in network • Functional Requirements : • Simplify construction of services across many hosts in wide network • Add and remove resources at will • Add and remove new hosts at will • Interface to application programmers should be simple and independent of types of distributed resources Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  18. 10.3: Peer-to-Peer Middleware • Peer To Peer Middleware (contd) • Non-Functional Requirements : • Global Scalability • Load Balancing • Optimization for local interactions between neighboring peers • Accommodation to highly dynamic host availability • Security of data in an environment simplify construction of services across many hosts in wide network • Anonymity, deniability and resistance to censorship Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  19. 10.3: Peer-to-Peer Middleware • Peer To Peer Middleware (contd) • Global scalability, dynamic host availability and load sharing and balancing across large numbers of computers pose major design challenges. • Design of Middleware layer • Knowledge of locations of objects must be distributed throughout network • Use of replication to achieve this Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  20. 10.4: Routing Overlays • Routing Overlays • Sub-systems, APIs, within the peer-to-peer middleware • Responsible for locating nodes and objects • Implements a routing mechanism in the application layer • Separate from any other routing mechanisms such as IP routing • Ensures that any node can access any object by routing each request thru a sequence of nodes • Exploits knowledge at each node to locate the destination Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  21. 10.4: Routing Overlays • GUIDs • ‘pure’ names or opaque identifiers • Reveal nothing about the locations of the objects • Building blocks for routing overlays • Computed from all or part of the state of the object using a function that deliver a value that is very likely to be unique. Uniqueness is then checked against all other GUIDs • Not human readable Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  22. 10.4: Routing Overlays • Tasks of a routing overlay • Client submits a request including the object GUID, routing overlay routes the request to a node at which a replica of the object resides • A node introduces a new object by computing its GUID and announces it to the routing overlay • Clients can remove an object • Nodes may join and leave the service Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  23. 10.4: Routing Overlays • Types of Routing Overlays • DHT – Distributed Hash Tables • Computes the GUID from all or part of the state of the object • DOLR – Distributed Object Location and Routing • DOLR is a layer over the DHT that maps GUIDs and address of nodes • DHT – GUIDs are stored based on the hash value • DOLR – GUIDs host address is notified using the Publish() operation Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  24. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Both Pastry and Tapestry adopt the prefix routing approach • Pastry has a straightforward but effective design. It is the message routing infrastructure deployed in applications such as PAST, an archival file system Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  25. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Tapestry is the basis for OceanStore storage system. It has a more complex architecture than Pastry because it aims to support a wider range of locality approaches Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  26. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Let’s talk about Pastry Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  27. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Pastry • A routing overlay with the common characteristics • All the nodes and objects are assigned 128-bit GUIDs • Nodes are computed by applying a secure hash function such as SHA-1 to the public key with each node is provided Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  28. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Objects such as files he GUIDs is computed by a secure hash function to the object’s name or to some part of the object’s stored state • The resulting GUID has the usual properties of secure hash values randomly distributed in the range 0 to 2128-1 • In a network with N participating nodes, the Pastry routing algorithm will correctly route a message addressed to an GUID in O(log N) steps Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  29. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • GUID delivers message to an identified active node, otherwise, delivers to another active node numerically closest to the original one • Active nodes take responsibility of rprocessing requests addressed to al objects in their numerical neighborhood • Routing steps involve the user of an underlying transport protocol (normally UDP) to transfer the message to a Pastry node that is ‘closer’ to its destination Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  30. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • The real transport of a message across the Internet between two Pastry nodes may requires a substantial number of IP hops • Pastry users a locality metric based on network distance in the underlying network to select appropriate neighbors when setting up the routing tables used at each node Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  31. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • The participated Hosts are fully self organizing and obtaining the data need to construct a routing table and other required state from existing members in O(log N) messages, where N is the number of hosts participating in the overlay • When a node fails, the remaining nodes can detect its absence and cooperatively reconfigure to reflect the required changes in the routing structure Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  32. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Pastry Routing Algorithm • The algorithm involves the user of a routing table at each node to route messages efficiently. • Describe the algorithm in two stages • Stage 1: Simplified form to routes messages correctly but inefficiently without a routing table • Stage 2: Describe full routing algorithm with routing table which routes a request to any node in O(log N) messages Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  33. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Stage 1: • Each active node stores a leaf set – a vector L (of size of 2l) • The vector contains the GUIDs and IP addresses of the nodes whose GUIDs are numerically closest on either side of its own (l above and l below) • Leaf sets are maintained by Pastry as nodes join and leave Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  34. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Even after a node failure they will be corrected within a short time within the defined maximum rate of failure • The GUID space is treated as circular Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  35. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Stage 1: Circular routing alone is correct but inefficient Destination D Node A (65A1FC) receives message M with destination address D (D46A1C) Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  36. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Stage 2: • Full Pastry algorithm • Efficient routing is achieved with the aid of routing tables • Each Pastry node maintains a tree-structured routing table giving GUIDs and IP address for a set of nodes spread throughout the entire range of 2128 possible GUID values Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  37. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Structure of a routing table Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  38. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Routing a message with the aid of routing table and the message can be delivered in ~log 16 (N) hops. Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  39. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Pastry’s routing algorithm Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  40. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Host integration • New nodes use a joining protocol to acquire their routing table and leaf set contents • Notify other nodes of changes they must make to their tables. Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  41. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Host failure or departure • Nodes in Pastry infrastructure may fail or depart without warning • A node is considered failed when its immediate neighbours can no longer communicate with it • Required to repair the leaf sets that contain the failed node’s GUID Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  42. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Locality • The locality metric is used to compare candidates and the closest available node is chosen • This mechanism cannot produce globally optimal routings because available information is not comprehensive Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  43. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry • Fault tolerance • Use ‘at-least-once’ delivery mechanism and repeat several time sin the absence of a response to allow Pastry a longer time window to detect and repair node failures Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho

  44. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry Both Pastry and Tapestry adopt the prefix routing approach Pastry has a straightforward but effective design. Tapestry has a more complex architecture than Pastry because it aims to support a wider range of locality approaches Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 44

  45. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry Let’s talk about Pastry Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 45

  46. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry Pastry A routing overlay network All the nodes and objects are assigned 128-bit GUIDs Nodes are computed by applying a secure hash function such as SHA-1 to the public key with each node is provided Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 46

  47. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry Objects such as files the GUIDs is computed by a secure hash function to the object’s name or to some part of the object’s stored state The resulting GUID has the usual properties of secure hash values randomly distributed in the range 0 to 2128-1 In a network with N participating nodes, the Pastry routing algorithm will correctly route a message addressed to an GUID in O(log N) steps Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 47

  48. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry GUID delivers message to an identified active node, otherwise, delivers to another active node numerically closest to the original one Active nodes take responsibility of processing requests addressed to all objects in their numerical neighborhood Routing steps involve the user of an underlying transport protocol (normally UDP) to transfer the message to a Pastry node that is ‘closer’ to its destination Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 48

  49. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry The real transport of a message across the Internet between two Pastry nodes may requires a substantial number of IP hops Pastry uses a locality metric based on network distance in the underlying network to select appropriate neighbors when setting up the routing tables used at each node Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 49

  50. 10.5: Overlay Case Studies: Pastry, Tapestry The participated Hosts are fully self organizing Nodes obtains data from network to construct a routing table and other required state from existing members When a node fails, the remaining nodes reconfigure the required changes in the routing structure Bruce Hammer, Steve Wallis, Raymond Ho 50