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The Structure of Matter. Section 1 – Compounds and Molecules Section 2 – Ionic and Covalent Bonding Section 3 – Compound Names and Formulas. State Standards. CLE.3203.1.6 – Distinguish between common ionic and covalent compounds CLE.3202.1.7 – Construct chemical formulas for common compounds

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the structure of matter

The Structure of Matter

Section 1 – Compounds and Molecules

Section 2 – Ionic and Covalent Bonding

Section 3 – Compound Names and Formulas

state standards
State Standards
  • CLE.3203.1.6 – Distinguish between common ionic and covalent compounds
  • CLE.3202.1.7 – Construct chemical formulas for common compounds
  • CLE.3202.TE.4 – Describe the dynamic interplay among science, technology, and engineering within living, earth-space, and physical systems
1 compounds and molecules
1 – Compounds and Molecules

KEY QUESTIONS

  • What holds a compound together?
  • How can the structure of chemical compounds be shown?
  • What determines the properties of a compound?
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Forces that hold atoms or ions together in a compound are chemical bonds
    • H and O form bonds when water is formed
chemical structure
Chemical Structure
  • The way that atoms are bonded together to make a compound results in chemical structure
  • This structure can be shown by various models
    • Example : Ball and Stick Model
chemical structure1
Chemical Structure
  • Some models show bond length and bond angles
    • Ball and stick
  • Other models show space occupied by compounds
    • Space-filling model ( Figure 2 in Chapter 6 – page 178 )
    • ETHANOL 
bonds are like springs
Bonds are like SPRINGS
  • Bonds are flexible and act like springs
  • Bonds can bend, stretch, compress, and twist
    • Do this without breaking
  • Temperature affects this motion ( Kinetic Theory )
how structure affects properties
How Structure Affects Properties
  • Chemical structure determines properties
  • Network structures form strong solids
    • Quartz (network of rigid Si-O-Si bonds )
  • Some networks consist of bonded ions
    • Salt ( NaCl formed from Na+ and Cl- ions )
    • Group 1 elements form cations / Group 17 anions
  • Some compounds are made of molecules
    • Sugar is a group of single ( the same ) molecules
attractive forces vary
Attractive Forces Vary
  • Example : H2O
  • Water is liquid at room temp
  • Sugar is solid at room temp
  • Indicates that water has weaker attractive forces
attractive forces vary1
Attractive Forces Vary
  • Forces between molecules
  • Example : H2O
  • Water has higher melting point than H2S
  • Indicates that water has stronger attractive forces
1 compounds and molecules1
1 – Compounds and Molecules

KEY QUESTIONS

  • What holds a compound together?
  • How can the structure of chemical compounds be shown?
  • What determines the properties of a compound?
2 ionic and covalent bonding
2 – Ionic and Covalent Bonding

KEY QUESTIONS

  • Why do atoms form bonds?
  • Why do ionic bonds form?
  • What do atoms joined by covalent bonds share?
  • What gives metals their distinctive properties?
  • How are polyatomic ions similar to other ions?
why do chemical bonds form
Why do Chemical Bonds Form?
  • In general, atoms join to form bonds so that each atom may have a stable electron configuration
  • They want a full level of valence electrons!!
ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding
  • Formed from the attraction between ions
  • Ions are formed by transfer of electrons
    • Na and Cl form salt
  • Ionic compounds form as networks
    • Solids are the result
  • Ionic compounds dissolved in

water conduct electricity

covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • These are formed when electrons are SHARED
  • EXAMPLES : O2, Cl2, N2
  • Atoms may share more than one pair of electrons
  • Atoms do not always EQUALLY SHARE electrons
metallic bonds
Metallic Bonds
  • A type of covalent bond
  • Occurs between metals
  • Electrons move freely between

metal atoms

  • Metals are flexible and conduct electricity well because their atoms and electrons can move freely throughout the packed structure
polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions
  • Acts as a single unit in a compound, like ions that consist of a single atom do ( like Cl, Na )
  • Hydroxide ( OH - )
    • NaOH
  • Carbonate ( CO32- )
    • CaCO3
  • Ammonium Sulfate : (NH4)2SO4

+1 -2

polyatomic ions1
Polyatomic Ions
  • Some of these are named based on the number of oxygen atoms in compound
  • Nitrate vs Nitrite
    • NO3- vs NO2-
  • Chlorate vs. Chlorite
    • ClO3- vs ClO2-
2 ionic and covalent bonding1
2 – Ionic and Covalent Bonding

KEY QUESTIONS

  • Why do atoms form bonds?
  • Why do ionic bonds form?
  • What do atoms joined by covalent bonds share?
  • What gives metals their distinctive properties?
  • How are polyatomic ions similar to other ions?
3 compound names formulas
3 – Compound Names & Formulas

KEY QUESTIONS

How are ionic compounds named?

What do the numerical prefixes used in naming covalent compounds tell you?

What does a compound’s empirical formula indicate?

naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Ionic compounds are named based on the constituent ions
  • Cations ( + ) are named based on the element
    • “calcium”
    • “magnesium”
naming ionic compounds1
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Anions ( - ) are altered names of elements
    • “oxide”
    • “chloride”
put em together
Put ‘Em Together
  • sodium chloride ( NaCl )
  • magnesium chloride ( MgCl2 )
  • aluminum oxide ( Al2O3 )
formula unit
Formula Unit
  • sodium chloride ( NaCl )
  • magnesium chloride ( MgCl2 )
  • aluminum oxide ( Al2O3 )
  • calcium fluoride ( CaF2 )

Wikepedia.org

naming ionic compounds2
Naming Ionic Compounds
  • Charge ( + ) of many transition metals varies
    • Fe may have 2+ or 3+
  • Thus, some names show cation charge
    • iron(III) oxide [common form ]
    • iron(II) oxide
  • Can also see charge in chemical formulas
    • Fe2O3 [ Fe3+ since Oxygen is often O2- ]
    • FeO [ both ions have a ‘2’ charge ]
naming covalent compounds
Naming Covalent Compounds
  • Numerical prefixes indicate chemical formula when more than atom is involved
  • Examples:
    • carbon dioxide ( CO2 )
    • silicon dioxide ( SiO2 )
    • boron tetrafluoride ( BF3 )
    • Dinitrogen tetroxide ( N2O4 )

N2O4 via Wikepedia.org

empirical formulas
Empirical Formulas
  • Indicates the smallest whole-number ratio of atoms in a compound
    • Some are same as chemical formula
  • Hydrogen Peroxide is exception:
  • Chemical Formula – H2O2
  • Empirical Formula – HO
  • Formaldehyde, acetic acid, and glucose have same empirical formula
empirical formula
Empirical Formula
  • Molecular Formulas ( had Formula Unit for Ionics )
  • Emprirical formula can be determined by analyzing mass of each element in a compound
3 compound names formulas1
3 – Compound Names & Formulas

KEY QUESTIONS

How are ionic compounds named?

What do the numerical prefixes used in naming covalent compounds tell you?

What does a compound’s empirical formula indicate?