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B. Water. Needed by but not c reated by living things. Created by living things Contain carbon as central atom Also contain hydrogen. Water – inorganic molecule, essential to ALL life. 1 . Chemistry of Water

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b water
B. Water
  • Needed by but not
  • created by living things
  • Created by living things
  • Contain carbon as central atom
  • Also contain hydrogen
water inorganic molecule essential to all life
Water – inorganic molecule, essential to ALL life

1. Chemistry of Water

  • Water is bonded by a polar covalent bond = electrons are unequally shared between O and H
  • OVERALL – the molecule has a polar nature
  • Meaning – one end is slightly positive and one end is negative
2 hydrogen bonding
2. Hydrogen Bonding
  • Between water molecules there are HYDROGEN bonds
  • Definition – H –Bonds

A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an negative atom, - of another molecule

a properties of water
A. Properties of Water

Adhesiveness

  • Creates surface tension- aquatic insects can travel on surface

High Specific Heat Capacity

  • help regulate body temperature
  • Water requires a large amount of energy to changes temperature
properties cont
Properties (cont.)

Universal solvent – water will dissolve many solutes

-blood carries dissolved solutes

-oceans carry dissolved solutes

Transparent in Nature- Aquatic environments for photosynthesis

Lubricant – swallowing, joints

ii acids bases and buffers
II. Acids, Bases and Buffers

When water DISSOCIATES

H = OH

This is a neutral solution (pH 7)

acids
Acids
  • When the concentration of the H ion

is greater than the concentration of the OH ion then we have an acid.

  • Ex. HCl in stomach
  • Ex. Lemon juice
  • How do acids taste??
bases
Bases
  • When the [ OH] is greater than [H] then we have a base.
  • Ex – ammonia, oven

cleaner

ph ph scale
pH & pH Scale
  • is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions that are free in a system
  • High [H] LESS pH
  • LowRanges from 0 to 14

pH Scale

  • 0 to 7 = Acidic
  • 7 = neutral = water
  • 8-14=basic or alkaline
buffers
Buffers
  • A compound that tends to maintain a solution at a constant pH by accepting or releasing hydrogen ions
  • Ex. Bicarbonate ion
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