President George Washington - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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President George Washington

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  1. President George Washington

  2. What you need to know • Uncertainty when Washington was elected • What Judiciary Act of 1789 did • Washington’s cabinet • Argument between Hamilton & Jefferson • Hamilton’s economic plan • Bank of the United States • 2-party system • Whiskey Rebellion

  3. The 1st presidential election • After constitution was ratified, USA had to pick its 1stPresident • Electoral College elected Washington unanimously

  4. What now? • US was 1st country based on new ideals • Republic • Individual freedoms • Nobody knew if it would work

  5. Washington’s 1st days • Many practical choices to make • Had to raise money • Had to provide national defense • Had to set up office of President • No example to follow – had to make it up as they went along

  6. Judiciary Act of 1789 • Constitution only established Supreme Court, no other courts • Congress had to pass law to • Set up how S.C. would work • Set up courts below S.C.

  7. Judiciary Act of 1789 • Supreme Court membership • 1 Chief Justice / 5 associates • Set up lower courts • 3 circuit courts / 13 district courts • Decisions from state courts could be reviewed by federal courts • If it also applied to the constitution

  8. The Executive Branch • Pres& VP were the only members of executive branch • Congress set up 3 departments: • State Dept – foreign affairs • War Dept – military • Treasury Dept – national finances

  9. The Cabinet • Washington selected people he knew to lead the departments • Thomas Jefferson – Sec of State • Alex. Hamilton – Sec of Treasury • Henry Knox – Sec of War • Edmund Randolph – AttyGeneral • Lawyer for the government

  10. Hamilton vs. Jefferson • Bitter rivals in Washington’s administration • Had very different beliefs on how US should be run

  11. Thomas Jefferson • Wealthy planter from Virginia • Renaissance man • Writer, scientist, inventor, architect • Founder of UVa

  12. Thomas Jefferson • Believed in “common man” • Wanted weak natlgov & strong state & local govs • Regular people have more say • Most of his support was from south & west

  13. Alexander Hamilton • Born very poor on Nevis (Caribbean) • Orphaned at 13 • Worked way to NY • Enlisted in army, became aide to Gen. Washington

  14. Alexander Hamilton • Didn’t trust the poor, believed in the educated upper class • Wanted strong natl gov • Nation’s strength depends on commerce & industry (wealth) • Most support was from north

  15. Hamilton’s economic plan • Needed to pay huge natl debt • Lots of money owed to soldiers & foreign govs • Some of debt owed by states • Needed to set up bank system

  16. Hamilton’s economic plan • Wanted to pay off foreign debt first – get rest of world off our backs • Also, US was too weak & poor to fight another war • Less chance they attack us if we don’t owe them anything

  17. Hamilton’s economic plan • US owed lots of $, but nation should absorb the debt of the states • Would make debt worse, but… • Creditors wouldn’t get paid if the US government fails

  18. Reaction to Hamilton’s plan • South HATED IT • They’d already paid off their debt • If US takes north’s debt, have to raise taxes on everyone to pay it • South would have to pay extra

  19. Bank of the United States • Would print money • Would handle deposits from wealthy investors • Get more people involved in making sure gov stays intact • Would handle accounts of national gov

  20. Opposition to Bank • James Madison was against it • Scared of “unhealthy alliance” between gov and wealthy people • Constitution lists powers the natlgov has, but a bank’s not on list • In favor of Strict construction – follow exactly what constitution says

  21. Defense of the Bank • Loose construction –national gov gets powers not specifically listed in constitution (Article 1, Section 8) • Elastic clause – national gov has powers if “necessary & proper” • The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

  22. Argument about the Bank • Washington agreed w/Hamilton • But Jefferson stood in Bank’s way of getting established

  23. The Compromise • They made a deal: • If Jefferson lends support to the bank… • US would build its capital city in the south between VA & MD

  24. Emergence of parties • America broke into 2 parties • Federalists backed Hamilton • Wanted stronger national gov • Democratic-Republicans backed Jefferson • Wanted states to have more power • Became modern-day Democrats

  25. Emergence of parties • Since then, US has been (basically) a 2-party country • Other parties try, never catch on in big enough numbers

  26. Washington & parties • Washington HATED fact that his people were splitting up • Remained out of the arguments • He feared parties would harm national unity

  27. Whiskey Rebellion • 1st big threat to new national gov • Congress passed tariff on imported liquor – to help US companies make money • Later passed an excise tax (tax on a specific item) on liquor

  28. Whiskey Rebellion • Many western and southern people made & sold lots of liquor – they were really mad at excise tax • Farmers refused to pay, attacked federal marshals

  29. Whiskey Rebellion • Washington and Hamilton led army of militiamen • Militia disbursed rebels & no one died

  30. Whiskey Rebellion • Washington and Hamilton led army of militiamen • Farmers disbursed rebels & no one died

  31. What you need to know • Uncertainty when Washington was elected • What Judiciary Act of 1789 did • Washington’s cabinet • Argument between Hamilton & Jefferson • Hamilton’s economic plan • Bank of the United States • 2-party system • Whiskey Rebellion