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Medical English

Medical English

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Medical English

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  1. Medical English Week 4 Chapter 3

  2. Revision quiz – Chapters 1 and 2

  3. Revision quiz – Chapters 1 and 2

  4. Revision quiz – Chapters 1 and 2

  5. In Week 4, we will: • Define new suffixes and combining forms • Review medical terms learnt in previous chapters • Use the new suffixes with combining forms to build and understand terms • Identify the functions of the different types of blood cells in the body

  6. Suffixes

  7. Suffixes - pronunciation

  8. Suffixes - pronunciation

  9. Suffixes - pronunciation

  10. Suffixes - pronunciation

  11. Suffixes - plurals

  12. Parts of the body

  13. Parts of the body • English word: brain • Medical combining form: encephal/o Medical procedure: electroencephalography

  14. Parts of the body • English word: tonsils • Medical combining form: tonsill/o Medical condition: tonsillitis Medical procedure: tonsillectomy • English word: adenoids • Medical combining form: aden/o • Meaning: resembling glands Medical procedure: adenoidectomy

  15. Parts of the body • English word: eyelid • Medical combining form: blephar/o Medical condition: blepharoptosis • English word: eye • Medical combining form: ophthalm/o Medical term: opthalmology

  16. Parts of the body • English word: ear • Medical combining form: ot/o Medical procedure: otalgia

  17. Parts of the body • English word: nose • Medical combining word: rhin/o Medical procedure: rhinoplasty

  18. Parts of the body • English word: armpit • Medical combining form: axill/o

  19. Parts of the body • English word: breast • Medical combining form: mamm/o, • mast/o • English word: muscle • Medical combining forms: my/o Medical condition: myalgia Medical procedure: mammogram Medical procedure: mastectomy

  20. Parts of the body • English word: abdomen • Medical combining form: abdomin/o,lapar/o • English word: chest • Medical combining forms: thorac/o Medical procedure: thoracentesis Medical procedure: laparotomy Medical procedure: laparostomy

  21. Parts of the body • English word: heart • Medical combining form: cardi/o Medical procedure: cardiogram Medical condition:cardiomyopathy

  22. Parts of the body • English word: larynx • Medical combining forms: laryng/o • English word: bronchial tubes • Medical combining form: bronch/o Medical condition: laryngitis Medical procedure:laryngectomy • English word: trachea, windpipe • Medical combining forms: trache/o Medical procedure: tracheotomy Medical condition: bronchitis

  23. Parts of the body • English word: lungs • Medical combining forms: pneumon/o, pulmon/o Medical condition: pneumonia Medical condition:pulmonary

  24. Parts of the body • English word: vein • Medical combining form: phleb/o • Venule = small vein • English word: artery • Medical combining form: arteri/o • Arteriole = small artery Medical condition: phlebitis Medical condition: arteriosclerosis

  25. Parts of the body • English word: liver • Medical combining form: hepat/o Medical condition: hepatitis

  26. Parts of the body • English word: spleen • Medical combining forms: splen/o • The spleen: • disposes of dying red blood cells • manufactures white blood cells Medical condition: splenomegaly

  27. Parts of the body • English word: kidney • Medical combining forms: ren/o,nephr/o Medical condition: nephritis

  28. Parts of the body • English word: colon • Medical combining forms: col/o • English word: rectum • Medical combining forms: rect/o Medical condition: colitis Medical procedure: colonoscopy Medical condition: rectocele

  29. Parts of the body • English word: joint • Medical combining form: arthr/o • English word: bone • Medical combining form: oste/o Medical condition: osteomalacia Medical condition: arthralgia

  30. Parts of the body • English word: peritoneum • Medical combining form: peritone/o Medical condition: peritoneotomy

  31. Other combining forms

  32. Other combining forms • English word: water, fluid • Medical combining form: hydr/o • English word: time • Medical combining form: chron/o Medical condition: chronic arthritis Medical condition: hydremia

  33. Other combining forms • English word: sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus (amnion) • Medical combining form: amni/o • English word: cartilage • Medical combining form: chondr/o Medical condition: achondroplasia Medical procedure: amniocentesis

  34. Other combining forms

  35. Other combining forms

  36. Exercises • Do practice exercise A on the worksheet. • Turn to page 90. Do exercise B. • Turn to page 92-3. Do exercises E, F and H.

  37. Blood

  38. Blood flow Artery  Arteriole  Arterial capillary  Venous capillary  Venule  Vein

  39. Types of blood cells • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) • contain hemoglobin • carry oxygen • do not have a nucleus • White blood cells (leukocytes) • fight infection • five different types • Platelets (thrombocytes) • control clotting • are fragments of cells

  40. Types of white blood cells • Granulocytes • Have a multilobed nucleus • Contain dark staining granules in their cytoplasm • Consist of: • Eosinophils (3%) • Basophils (<1%) • Neutrophils (50-60%) • Agranulocytes • Have one large nucleus and only a few granules • Consist of: • Lymphocytes (32%) • Monocytes (4%)

  41. Granulocytes • Eosinophils • granules stain red (acidic) • are active • increase in allergic conditions • Basophils • granules stain blue (basic) • function not fully understood • increase in the healing phase of inflammation • Neutrophils • granules stain blue and red/purple (neutral) • phagocytes (engulf and digest bacteria) • called ‘polys’ because of their multilobed nucleus

  42. Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes • Lymph cells • Fight disease by producing antibodies • Attach directly to foreign cells and destroy them • T cells and B cells • Monocytes • Have one large nucleus • Engulf and destroy cellular debris • Leave the bloodstream and enter tissues (e.g. lung and liver), becoming macrophages

  43. Blood diseases / conditions • Anemia • Literally ‘no blood’ • Medically, reduction in • erythrocytes (red blood cells) • amount of hemoglobin in the blood • Aplasticanemia – bone marrow stops producing erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes • Ischemia • Literally ‘ to hold back blood’ from a part of the body • Ischemic tissue is deprived of oxygen • Can be caused by • mechanical injury • blood clots • collection of fatty material closing off a vessel

  44. Exercises • Do practice exercise B on the worksheet. • Turn to page 91. Do exercise C. • Turn to pages 94-95. Do exercise J.

  45. Some medical conditions and procedures

  46. Hernias • Hiatal hernia • stomach protrudes into the mediastinum • Inguinal hernia • intestine protrudes into scrotal sac • affects the male • Rectocele • rectum protrudes into the vagina • affects the female • Cystocele • urinary bladder protrudes into the vagina • affects the female • Omphalocele • intestines protrude through the navel • affects infants

  47. Bacterial infections: Streptococcus • Berry-shaped bacteria • Grows in twisted chains • One group causes ‘strep throat’, tonsillitis, rheumatic fever, some kidney ailments • Another group causes tooth and sinus infections, and heart valve infections

  48. Bacterial infections: Staphylococcus • Berry-shaped bacteria • Grows in small grape-like clusters • Can cause external lesions (skin abscesses, boils, styes) • Can cause internal lesions (abscesses in bone and kidney) Abscess = collection of pus, white blood cells, protein. Present at infection sites.

  49. Bacterial infections: Diplococcus • Berry-shaped bacteria • Organised in pairs • Pneumococci cause bacterial pneumonia • Gonococci cause gonorrhea

  50. Medical procedure: Laparoscopy • Minimally invasive • Laparoscope inserted through the abdomen • Carbon dioxide gas infused into the peritoneal cavity • Used to visually examine abdominal viscera • Used to remove the appendix, gallbladder, adrenal gland, spleen, ovary • Used to resection the colon • Used to repair hernias • Used in tubal ligation