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The History of Computers. Developments Leading up to the Stored-Program Computer of Today. Designed by Mr. Wilhelmi. In The Beginning. Early humans counted on their fingers – evolution of base 10 numbering system. Abacus Orient. 3000 years ago First calculating mechanism

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The history of computers

The History of Computers

Developments Leading up to the Stored-Program Computer of Today

Designed by Mr. Wilhelmi


In the beginning
In The Beginning

  • Early humans counted on their fingers – evolution of base 10 numbering system


Abacus orient
Abacus Orient

  • 3000 years ago

  • First calculating mechanism

  • Beads represent digits

  • Rods represent places – units, tens, hundreds, and higher multiples of ten


Blaise pascal
Blaise Pascal

  • Invented the Pascaline in 1642

  • First mechanical adding machine


Gottfried leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz

  • Invented Step Reckoner in 1671

  • Could add, subtract, multiply, divide, and evaluate square roots


Joseph jacquard
Joseph Jacquard

  • Jacquard’sLoom in 1810

  • Emphasized three computer concepts

    1. Instructions

    - used punched cards

    2. Simple Program

    - series of instructions

    3. Automate job

    - because of program


Charles babbage
Charles Babbage

  • Father of Computers

  • Invented Analytical Engine in 1832

  • 5 characteristics of modern computer

    • Input device – punch cards

    • Processor – mill

    • Control Unit

    • Storage Facility – store

    • Output device


Ada augusta
Ada Augusta

  • First Computer Programmer

    • wrote programs for the Analytical Engine

  • Her notes on the Analytical Engine was used in the future development

    of computers


Herman hollerith
Herman Hollerith

  • Invented Tabulating Machine for 1890 Census

  • First machine capable of processing statistical information from punched cards


Alan turing
Alan Turing

  • Worked on Colossuscomputer in 1943

  • Used in World War II for cracking German codes (ENIGMA)


John mauchly presper eckert
John MauchlyPresper Eckert

  • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator) 1946

  • First electronic computer to go into operation


The history of computers

  • A moth got caught in the MARK II and shorted out a relay

  • Grace crawled in and removed it from inside the computer

  • Popularized the term “bug” to signify any system failure

  • The term “debugging” signifies solving a computer problem


John von neumann
John von Neumann

EDVAC - first electronic computer to use stored-program

“First Draft” – based on

his concepts, all computers

process data by carrying out

four specific activities:

Input data

Store data

Process data

Output data/results

This initiated the modern

computer era.


First generation computers 1951 1958
First Generation Computers (1951-1958)

  • Vacuum tubes

    • for electronic circuits

  • Punched cards

    • for secondary memory/storage

  • Speed – Milliseconds

    • Thousands of operations per second

  • Machine and Assembly languages


Vacuum tube
Vacuum Tube

  • Provided the electronic circuits for computer

  • 6000 circuits/cubic foot

  • Konrad Zuse used it in 1941 instead of electromagnetic relays

  • Large and bulky. Generated enormous amounts of heat

  • Burned out frequently causing computer to be down for large amounts of time


Second generation computers 1959 1964
Second Generation Computers (1959-1964)

  • Transistors

    • electronic circuits

  • Magnetic tape

    • secondary memory\storage

  • Speed – Microseconds

    • millions of operations per second

  • Programming languages

    • COBOL, Fortran, Symbolic


Transistor
Transistor

  • Replaced vacuum tubes as electronic circuits in computers

  • Developed by William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen from Bell Labs in 1947

    • Won the Nobel Prize in 1956 as a result

  • 100,000 circuits/cubic foot

Comparison of the vacuum tube with the transistor


Third generation computers 1965 1970
Third Generation Computers (1965-1970)

  • Integrated Circuits (IC)

    • electronic circuits

  • Magnetic tape

    • secondary memory\storage

  • Speed – Nanoseconds

    • Billions of operations per second

  • Silicon Chip

    • silicon crystal that IC is etched in


Integrated circuit ic
Integrated Circuit (IC)

  • Invented by Jack Kilby of

    Texas Instruments in 1959

  • 10 million circuits/cubic foot

  • Won the Nobel Prize in 2000 as a result


Fourth generation computers 1971 present
Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present)

  • Personal micro-computer

  • Microprocessor

    • electronic circuits

  • Magnetic disk

    • secondary memory\storage

  • Speed – picoseconds

    • trillions of operations

      per second

  • Virtual memory

    • mimics behavior of primary memory


Microprocessor
Microprocessor

  • Invented by Ted Hoff of Intel in 1971

  • Very Large Scale Integration (VSLI)

    • tens of thousands electronic components on each IC chip

  • Over 500 billion circuits/cubic foot


Steven jobs steve wozniak
Steven JobsSteve Wozniak

  • Invented Apple Macintosh in 1984

  • First programmable computer available for personal use

  • First computer to use Graphical User Interface


Fifth generation computers future
Fifth Generation Computers (Future)

  • Artificial Intelligence

    • Computer learns from itself

  • Natural Language

    • Communicate with computer using everyday language

  • Parallel Processing

    • Ability to process millions of instructions simultaneously

  • Speed – gigaseconds

    • Quadrillions of operations per second