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##### The History of Computers

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**The History of Computers**Developments Leading up to the Stored-Program Computer of Today Designed by Mr. Wilhelmi**In The Beginning**• Early humans counted on their fingers – evolution of base 10 numbering system**Abacus Orient**• 3000 years ago • First calculating mechanism • Beads represent digits • Rods represent places – units, tens, hundreds, and higher multiples of ten**Blaise Pascal**• Invented the Pascaline in 1642 • First mechanical adding machine**Gottfried Leibniz**• Invented Step Reckoner in 1671 • Could add, subtract, multiply, divide, and evaluate square roots**Joseph Jacquard**• Jacquard’sLoom in 1810 • Emphasized three computer concepts 1. Instructions - used punched cards 2. Simple Program - series of instructions 3. Automate job - because of program**Charles Babbage**• Father of Computers • Invented Analytical Engine in 1832 • 5 characteristics of modern computer • Input device – punch cards • Processor – mill • Control Unit • Storage Facility – store • Output device**Ada Augusta**• First Computer Programmer • wrote programs for the Analytical Engine • Her notes on the Analytical Engine was used in the future development of computers**Herman Hollerith**• Invented Tabulating Machine for 1890 Census • First machine capable of processing statistical information from punched cards**Alan Turing**• Worked on Colossuscomputer in 1943 • Used in World War II for cracking German codes (ENIGMA)**John MauchlyPresper Eckert**• ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator) 1946 • First electronic computer to go into operation**A moth got caught in the MARK II and shorted out a relay**• Grace crawled in and removed it from inside the computer • Popularized the term “bug” to signify any system failure • The term “debugging” signifies solving a computer problem**John von Neumann**EDVAC - first electronic computer to use stored-program “First Draft” – based on his concepts, all computers process data by carrying out four specific activities: Input data Store data Process data Output data/results This initiated the modern computer era.**First Generation Computers (1951-1958)**• Vacuum tubes • for electronic circuits • Punched cards • for secondary memory/storage • Speed – Milliseconds • Thousands of operations per second • Machine and Assembly languages**Vacuum Tube**• Provided the electronic circuits for computer • 6000 circuits/cubic foot • Konrad Zuse used it in 1941 instead of electromagnetic relays • Large and bulky. Generated enormous amounts of heat • Burned out frequently causing computer to be down for large amounts of time**Second Generation Computers (1959-1964)**• Transistors • electronic circuits • Magnetic tape • secondary memory\storage • Speed – Microseconds • millions of operations per second • Programming languages • COBOL, Fortran, Symbolic**Transistor**• Replaced vacuum tubes as electronic circuits in computers • Developed by William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen from Bell Labs in 1947 • Won the Nobel Prize in 1956 as a result • 100,000 circuits/cubic foot Comparison of the vacuum tube with the transistor**Third Generation Computers (1965-1970)**• Integrated Circuits (IC) • electronic circuits • Magnetic tape • secondary memory\storage • Speed – Nanoseconds • Billions of operations per second • Silicon Chip • silicon crystal that IC is etched in**Integrated Circuit (IC)**• Invented by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments in 1959 • 10 million circuits/cubic foot • Won the Nobel Prize in 2000 as a result**Fourth Generation Computers (1971-Present)**• Personal micro-computer • Microprocessor • electronic circuits • Magnetic disk • secondary memory\storage • Speed – picoseconds • trillions of operations per second • Virtual memory • mimics behavior of primary memory**Microprocessor**• Invented by Ted Hoff of Intel in 1971 • Very Large Scale Integration (VSLI) • tens of thousands electronic components on each IC chip • Over 500 billion circuits/cubic foot**Steven JobsSteve Wozniak**• Invented Apple Macintosh in 1984 • First programmable computer available for personal use • First computer to use Graphical User Interface**Fifth Generation Computers (Future)**• Artificial Intelligence • Computer learns from itself • Natural Language • Communicate with computer using everyday language • Parallel Processing • Ability to process millions of instructions simultaneously • Speed – gigaseconds • Quadrillions of operations per second