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CHANGE MANAGEMENT: ITS RELEVANCE TO OCCUPATIONAL SOCIAL WORK IN BRINGING ABOUT A TRANSFORMED ORGANISATION Kristo Skosana & Gladys Makondo 13 March 2013. Programme. Part 1 Organisational Change Management Context Change Management Role Preparing for Change Role Players in Project Success

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slide1

CHANGE MANAGEMENT: ITS RELEVANCE TO OCCUPATIONAL SOCIAL WORK IN BRINGING ABOUT A TRANSFORMED ORGANISATION

Kristo Skosana & Gladys Makondo

13 March 2013

programme
Programme

Part 1

  • Organisational Change Management Context
  • Change Management Role
  • Preparing for Change
  • Role Players in Project Success
  • Sponsor Role
  • Change Champions Network
  • Resistance Management
  • Emotional Cycle of Change Exercise

Part 2

  • Background and Context
  • SITA Vision and Mission
  • SITA Change Management Vision
  • SITA Change Management Model
  • SITA Turnaround Change Management Interventions
ocm context

Initiate Change

Sustain Change

OCM Context

CHANGE

8. Make It Stick

1. Increase Sense

Of Urgency

2. Build A Guiding Team

7. Don’t Let Up

6. Create Short-Term Wins

3. Get The Right Vision

5. Empower

Action

4. Communicate Buy-In

Kotter, John P. and Cohen, Dan S. The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press

Enable Change

phase1 initiate change
Phase1: Initiate Change

External Drivers(e.g. legislation, technology..)

Environment

  • This phase focuses on leadership interventions pertaining to external drivers for change and the impact on the internal vision and mission of the organisation.

Internal (Vision, Mission)

phase 2 enable change
Phase 2: Enable Change

Organisation

  • This phase focuses on the impact of change on strategy, systems, policy, processes and procedures. To enable change to take place, an organisation needs to align and transition from the current state to the future state.

Strategy

Structure

Policies

Systems

Procedures

Processes

change at organisational level
Change at Organisational Level

Phase 1 – Preparing for Change

Define Your CM Strategy

Phase 2 – Managing Change

Develop and Implement CM Plans

Phase 3 – Reinforcing Change

Collect and analyse feedback

Diagnose Gaps and Manage Resistance

Implementing change management activities that affect broad groups of

employees. This process is shown below:

Organizational change management process

phase 3 sustain change
Phase 3: Sustain Change

Individual

  • The final phase addresses the impact of change on employees to adopt changes through changing behaviour and attitudes.

Cognitive

Behaviour

Performance

Output

change at individual level
Change at Individual Level

Individual change management is a process for managing change at an

individual level with each employee as shown below:

The ADKAR Model

Managers that have direct employees are responsible for facilitating

individual change management. The process for managing change on an

individual level has five elements that serve as the sequential building blocks

of success. This change model is referred to as ADKAR®.

Awareness

Desire

Knowledge

Ability

Reinforcement

focus for change management
Focus for Change Management

Organisational Level

Adoption of System

Coaching Change Network

Meet Project

objectives

Build

Capability

Develop

Competence

Ensure return on

investment (ROI)

Prosci 2007

Proficiency in using the system

Utilisation of System

Managerial Level

Individual Level

comparing change management and roi
Comparing Change Management and ROI

+

Net cash flow of project period

0

Time (periods)

-

Exceptionally managed change cash flow

Poorly managed change cash flow

Expected cash flow

connecting the people side back to project and organizational success
Connecting the ‘people side’ back to project and organizational success

Project Name

Purpose

Particulars

People

If people don’t change how they do their job, then it doesn’t matter what specific changes are implemented

If people don’t change how they do their job, then we ultimately won’t achieve what we set out to from the beginning

role players in project success
Role Players in Project Success

Three key role players in the success of projects

slide16

Sponsor Diagram

Political Sponsor

Primary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Secondary Sponsor

Champions

Champions

Champion

Champion

Champions

Champions

Champions

Champions

sponsor role
Sponsor Role

The Sponsor s’ role has multiple thrusts

  • Political (Contextual)
  • Strategic side (Leadership)
    • Vision
    • Strategy
  • Project side (Decision making)
    • Resources
    • Scope
    • Timelines
  • People side (Action)
    • Communications
    • Coalition building
    • Visible participation
primary sponsor role
Primary Sponsor Role
  • Chairs the Change management meetings.
  • Advice and gain commitment from the other members.
  • Represent business.
  • Build relationship between employees and project.
  • Coach employees through change and provide management vision and direction.
  • Reviews the Change management scope and the overall impact to the affected stakeholders including users.
  • Facilitate the implementation of the change in their business.
  • Provide guidance and feedback to Change management team on the implementation of the change initiatives.
  • Identifies risks and issues and own the action plan to manage the risks engaging with key stakeholders.
what is a change network cn
What is a Change Network (CN)?
  • A group of people that assists with the implementation and assist to integrate the project with the business to strengthen ownership.
  • The Change Network comprises of Change Championsand Change Agents.
  • It is both a formal and informal network to leverage communication channels and roll out of change management interventions.
the role of the change champions
The Role of the Change Champions
  • Plan and implement SMART(Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Reliable and Time Bounded) change initiatives in their own areas
  • Provide a symbolic leadership: Facilitate internal communication presentation
  • Lead change impact briefing sessions in their areas
the role of the change champion
The Role of the Change Champion

The effective Change Network will influence upwards, downwards and sideways

slide23

In other words….

The Change Network plays a very important role in the Change Management process

change network structure
Change Network Structure

Change Network Team Structure

Feedback to/from Change Champions

Change Champions

Progress Updates

Change Agents

Project Change Management Team

End Users

resistance management
Resistance Management
  • Change Resistance is the equivalent of an individual or team’s rejection of an organisational change activity that reduces the effectiveness of the change process. It may build up gradually over time, initially having no significant effect on the performance of a process, or appear suddenly at a very high level.
  • All change can generate scepticism and resistance in employees, making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organizational improvements.
  • .

“The only person who likes change is a wet baby.” R. Blitzer

generic pillars of resistance
Generic Pillars of Resistance
  • Resistance to change can be rational, emotional and/or political.
  • The rational aspects of change are easy to identify and work through. Individuals are able to state their support or objections to the event.
  • Often the emotional and political aspects of change are hidden beneath the surface. The political landscape of the organization has to be understood and then identification of the possible forms or resistance. Awareness of the individual emotional responses which can be deeply held by the individual and not often shared need to be observed and unravelled.
manifestations of resistance
Manifestations of Resistance
  • Avoidance of responsibility
  • I’m not surprised
  • Silence
  • Nit-picking
  • Pressing for solutions
  • Changing the subject
  • Flooding with detail
  • One-word answers
  • Impracticality
  • Attacking
  • Compliance
  • Confusion
how to manage resistance
How to Manage Resistance
  • The systemic intervention creates the structure and establishes the overall temperament for engaging resistance. However, resistance cannot be managed as a group event. Change, after all, is experienced individually. Thus the systemic approach must be accompanied by the one-on-one encounters or small group meetings. It is in these more intimate settings that individual frames of reference can be understood and validated. Here, resistors obtain the self-awareness that leads to owning one’s own resistance.
  • Surface it … ask for it
  • Listen … acknowledge it
  • Pin point the source– what is it?
  • “Name that Resistance” … put it in words using neutral language
  • Call for action -- help them take responsibility for the part they control.
  • These conversations revolve around understanding the resistor’s frame of reference from three key perspectives: (1) the disruption caused by the change; (2) their motivation to change; and (3) the source of any resistance.
prosci change management maturity model

Change management competency is

Change management competency is

Continuous

Continuous

Highest

Highest

evident in all levels of the organization

evident in all levels of the organization

process

process

profitability and

profitability and

Organizational

Organizational

Level 5

Level 5

and is part of the organization’s culture

and is part of the organization’s culture

improvement in

improvement in

responsiveness

responsiveness

competency

competency

and intellectual property.

and intellectual property

place

place

Organizational

Organizational

Organization

Organization

-

-

wide standards and methods

wide standards and methods

Selection of

Selection of

Level 4

Level 4

are broadly deployed for managing and

are broadly deployed for managing and

common

common

standards

standards

leading change

leading change

approach

approach

Multiple

Multiple

Comprehensive approach for managing

Comprehensive approach for managing

Examples of best

Examples of best

Level 3

Level 3

change is being applied in multiple projects

change is being applied in multiple projects

practices evident

practices evident

projects

projects

Isolated

Isolated

Some elements of change management are

Some elements of change management are

Many different

Many different

Level 2

Level 2

being applied in isolated projects

being applied in isolated projects

tactics used

tactics used

projects

projects

inconsistently

inconsistently

Adhoc or

Adhoc or

Little or no change management applied

Little or no change management applied

People

People

-

-

dependent

dependent

Highest rate of

Highest rate of

Level 1

Level 1

without any formal

without any formal

project failure,

project failure,

absent

absent

practices or plans

practices or plans

turnover and

turnover and

productivity loss

productivity loss

PROSCI Change Management Maturity Model™
part 2
Part 2

SITA Change Management and Turnaround Process

background and context

Background & Context

Background and Context
  • The turnaround strategy is a platform on which the requirements for a successful Prime Systems Integrator must be realised,
  • To align to the above mandate, the turnaround recommended an organisational overhaul to rolled out through multiple projectsthat will focus on different aspects of the business. These include:
    • Business Model Definition;
    • Organisational Capability Definition ; and
    • Organisation Architecture Implementation.
  • The change management agenda for the turnaround is required to meet the change management needsof all programmes under the turnaround implementation.
  • Moreover, it will drive change interventions that will curtail anxiety and stress during the transformation process. The goal is to deliver seamless change management efforts (continuous engagement) that will sustain employees through this period of transformation, whilst building foundations for crafting the new SITA culture.
  • The change management for the turnaround is broadly informed by SITA ‘s approved integrated change management strategy.
sita vision mission turnaround change management key drivers
SITA Vision & Mission: Turnaround Change Management key drivers

VISION

“Be the lead ICT agency to enable public sector service delivery.”

MISSION

“To render an efficient and value added ICT service to the public sector in a secure, cost-effective and integrated manner, contributing to service delivery and citizen

convenience."

slide33

Change Management vision for the Turnaround and key principals for successful change

Key Guiding Principles

Turnaround Change Management Vision

  • Leadership sponsorship
  • Careful planning
  • Measurement
  • Engagement
  • Support Structures
  • Communication
  • Team building
  • To ensure that the business principles and behavioural requirements for the turnaround are merged together at all levels to advance effective transition of employees and transformation of SITA
rolling out the turnaround strategy

Phase 1: Organisational Review

Phase 2: Organisation Design

Phase 3: Implementation

Change Management

Communication

Rolling out the Turnaround Strategy

Entails the review of the organizational strategic intent, the review of the SITA capabilities, to understand where the organisation is going to determine the platform on which the new org structure has to be developed

Involves the actual design of the Org Structure, the design principles, the updating of the capabilities, as well as the design of competencies and the job profiles

Focuses on implementing the new Org structure, including training and Migration

the change management interventions initiatives as per the project implementation phases

Implementation Phase – Change Management Plan

The Change Management Interventions initiatives as per the project implementation phases

Project Phase

Context/Objective

Desired Outcomes

  • Building the case for change for the turnaround strategy
    • Rational
    • Impact
    • Drivers
    • Implementation
  • Employees awareness sessions
  • Change readiness assessments
  • Engagement sessions
  • Facilitate interactive engagements based on the Turnaround,
  • Create awareness of SITA new visions,
  • Rational for the turnaround,
  • Generate buy-in from employees to support to change;
  • Assess employee level of readiness towards the pending change,
  • Create excitement towards the pending change.

Phase 1:

Organisational Review

  • Facilitate the various engagement forums,
  • Support projects engagement, information sessions and communication requirements of the organisation architecture phase of the project.
  • Job fairs,
  • Ensure employees are aligned to key project activities,
  • Employees are knowledgeable about the OA-project activities
  • Impact assessment
  • Provide varied tools of employees engagement

Phase 2:

Organisation Design

the change management interventions initiatives as per the project implementation phase 3

Implementation Phase – Change Management Plan

The Change Management Interventions initiatives as per the project implementation phase 3

Project Phase

Context/Objective

Desired Outcomes

  • Policy implementation roadshows
  • Continues engagement sessions in the various forums
  • Policy implementation
  • Information dissemination
  • Impact assessment
  • Job fairs
  • Induction and onboarding
  • Ensure employees are knowledgeable of how the new SITA has been translated into the various policies, strategies and frameworks.
  • Buy-in
  • Break despondence of employees
  • Improve morale
  • Ensure an engaged workforce

Phase 3: Implementation

  • The impact of the Migration and Placement on staff is not only emotional but financial as well. It is possible that not all staff are quipped to make the decisions regarding the financial implications of the options/outcomes of the Migration and placement process.
  • Informed staff and positive staff - whatever the outcome of the placement process.
  • Employee Wellness Programs
  • Financial Counselling
  • Career Counselling
sita change management model

SITA Change Management Methodology

SITA Change Management Model

Change Management Vision

Organizational

Readiness

Purpose of the Change Management Strategy

Stakeholder management Plan

S

I

T

A

O

C

M

S

T

R

A

T

E

G

Y

Communication

Plan

Objectives of the Change Management Strategy

Training Plan

Situational Analysis

Risk Mitigation Plan

Team

Structure

Sponsorship

Roadmap

Change Champion Network

Critical Success Factors for the change

Resistance Management Plan

Lessons Learned

Framework

OCM Approach

Change

Embedding

Requirements

Impact

Evaluation

Consequential

Management

Evaluation & Continuous Reinforcement

various tools are used in order to deliver on change management objectives

SITA Change Management Methodology

Various tools are used in order to deliver on change management objectives
  • Communication Strategy
  • Stakeholder Engagement Strategy
  • Communication Plan
  • Stakeholder Engagement Plan (Inclusive of Leadership Plan)
  • Leadership Assessment Alignment Tools
  • Employee Engagement Assessment Tools
  • Assessment (readiness, impact) tools
  • Change Impact Tool (Monitoring and Evaluation Tool)

…all of these tools will be used throughout the project.

slide40

ADKAR model towards Employee engagement has been identified as a measurable tool of employee’s commitment and buy-in to the change process

The ADKAR Model as the necessary link to both employee engagement

and communications..

  • Current and Future
      • Effective awareness communication designed to lay a strong foundation of familiarity with the change key concepts
  • Measurable return on awareness when implementing effective
  • awareness efforts
  • enforced by leadership availability
  • change activities to enhance morale
  • AWARENESS
  • 2. DESIRE
      • Enhanced familiarity with key change concepts by providing the necessary training,
  • Explicitly define the behaviours to be modelled by leaders
  • Diagnose organisational and individual capabilities
  • Disseminate existing change, project competencies across the organizations
  • Build individual skills and self-confidence
  • 3. KNOWLEDGE
  • 4. ABILITY
  • Continues focus group discussions breeds loyalty and responsiveness
  • Reduced despondence, detachment
  • maintaining momentums
  • 5. REINFORCEMENT
slide41
Stakeholder Management is a critical success factor: SITAZENS will be engaged by different groups representatives
  • Will communicate the new Organisation Structure
  • Will highlight the benefits of the new structure for SITA and our clients

Executive Group:

  • Will ensure effective operationalisation of the new structure and business processes.
  • They will address any confusion in the provinces so business

Provincial Heads

  • Will engage you and ensure understanding of what the organisation expects from each department and SITAzens.
  • Will have one-on-one discussions with SITAzens on new roles

Senior and General Managers

  • Will provide support on the project team during the migration and transfer period.
  • Will be available as an information point for SITAzens.

HR Operations

  • Will ensure that project information is disseminated in their different environments.
  • Will facilitate sessions to ensure understand and gather concerns and/or input from SITAzens for escalation to project team.

Change Champions

internal mobilisation and communications is the nerve of any transformation programme

Strategy & Approach: Communication & Mobilization

Internal Mobilisation and Communications is the nerve of any transformation programme
  • The objectives of Internal Mobilisation and Communications are to:
    • Provide an effective communication strategy that creates awareness of the Organisation Architecture project and its roll-out
    • Ensure SITAzesns understand their respective roles and key activities resulting in the achievement of the above
    • Mobilise SITAzens to contribute and buy in to the change
    • Develop initiatives to manage risks and barriers to the implementation
    • Provide the opportunity for feedback from SITAzens

Messages will be developed in line with the project milestones.

communication channels relevant
Communication channels relevant

JOH-RNS003-20070522-JvW-P1

Audience

Communicators

Channel of communication

SET

  • Leadership
  • Interactive workshops to align on key message

SET

  • MCF/CCF representatives
  • Interactive workshop with consultative representatives to ensure alignment

Change team

  • SITAzenry
  • Informative workshop with Managers and employees
  • SITAzenry

CEO breakfast

  • Involving briefing and interactions with employees and clients

Corporate comms

  • SITAzenry
  • Updates via news letter
  • Feedback and comments via the portal
slide44

Change Management Tools: Change Agents

The Change Champion Network is an effective tool in driving out the change agenda at a peer-to-peer level

Skills and Characteristics of Change Agents

Expectations of Change Agents

  • Credibility at all levels of the organisation
  • Ability to give and receive feedback / coaching
  • Good listening / interpersonal communication skills
  • Demonstrates desired culture values and behaviours
  • Good follow-up skills
    • Ability to influence, push for action
  • Commitment to results
  • Ability to quickly pick up Change Management skills and tools:
    • Facilitation and Communication
    • Root cause analysis problem solving
    • Feedback and coaching
    • Recognizing and dealing with resistance
  • Communication of the organisation in the Change Management Process:
    • Able to conduct/facilitate sessions/workshops
    • Able to onboard new appointees in the business (about the overall project)
  • Issue Resolution:
    • Assist stakeholders in resolution of issues related to the project (e.g. ensure each user can access training portal)
  • Partner with departmental managers to implement the changes:
    • Drive the preparation, facilitation and implementation (particularly with role profiling work)
    • Co-facilitate meetings initially (e.g. 1-on-1 staff engagement for role profiling)
    • Transition to background coach role
the process of conducting assessments surveys is an ongoing exercise for the change management team

Change Management Tools: Assessments

The process of conducting assessments/surveys is an ongoing exercise for the change management team

A Change Readiness Assessment assesses an organization’s ability to change. It takes the pulse of the organization in order to determine to what extent key stakeholders understand, support and will help to implement the change.

The change impact assessment examines the degree of change impact on the employees’ wellbeing