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Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through member donations PowerPoint Presentation
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Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through member donations

Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through member donations

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Download Presentation

Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through member donations

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  1. Primary funding is provided by The SPE Foundation through member donations and a contribution from Offshore Europe The Society is grateful to those companies that allow their professionals to serve as lecturers Additional support provided by AIME Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl

  2. Heat Mining at The Geysers Geothermal Field Using Reclaimed Wastewater Marina Voskanian, P. E. California State Lands Commission Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect those of the State Lands Commission or its staff.

  3. Overview • History • Need for innovative solutions • Government-industry collaboration • Two injection projects • Effect on induced seismicity • Environmental benefits • Worldwide applications 2

  4. The Geysers Geothermal Field (1000 MWe) 3

  5. The Geysers Geothermal Field History • Discovered in 1847 • Largest geothermal field in the world • Peak field development in 1987 generating 1500 Megawatts • Steep production decline: • Reservoir pressure • Steam source 4

  6. The Geysers Geothermal Field Current Status • 450 wells • 50 injection wells • 18 power plants • 1000 Megawatt capacity • Equivalent to 60% of the power demand for the Coastal Region 5

  7. Geothermal Heat Mining System H O 2 Surface Power Plant Microseismic Monitoring Injection Well Deep Wells Production Well Fractured Reservoir 6

  8. Additional Water Injection • Need for pressure maintenance • Plant condensate not sufficient for heat mining • Injection reduces Non-Condensable Gas production (NCG) • Tracer tests confirm water injection supplements steam production 7

  9. Government-Industry Collaboration • Need for discharge of treated sewage water: • Lake County • City of Santa Rosa • Other Municipalities • Environmental benefits of disposing effluent water into the Geysers • Partnership between public and private sectors 8

  10. Two Injection Projects • Southeast Geysers Effluent Pipeline (SEGEP) • Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Pipeline (SRGRP) 9

  11. The Geysers Geothermal Resource Area with the Lake County and Santa Rosa Injection Zones 10

  12. Southeast Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project (SEGEP) • Delivered lake water and secondary treated water from Lake County Sanitation District • Increased field wide mass replacement from 28% to 50% • Benefit estimated at 69 MWe of additional power 11

  13. Santa Rosa Recharge Geysers Pipeline (SRGRP) • Delivered tertiary treated water from treatment plant from City of Santa Rosa for injection • Benefit estimated at 85 MWe of additional power • Increased mass replacement to 85% • Remaining water used for: • Agriculture • Urban irrigation 12

  14. Calpine Fieldwide Benefits 13

  15. Calpine Geysers Production and Injection History

  16. Water Injection Management • Where to inject? • How much to inject? Production Injection 15

  17. Injection Management Techniques • Fracture characterization • Heat mining modeling • Reservoir temperature/pressure • Production decline • NCG concentration • Location and operational efficiencies • Proximity to power plant and water pipeline 16

  18. Induced Seismicity • Seismically active prior to injection • Public concern with increasing micro-earthquakes (MEQ) • Ongoing monitoring by two seismic arrays: • United States Geological Survey • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 17

  19. Effect of Water Injection on Seismic Activity 18

  20. Water Injection and Induced Seismicity 19

  21. Summary of “Earthquake Potential” Studies • Earthquakes cannot be predicted • Earthquake magnitudes depend on surface area of fault that can slip • Large earthquakes occur mainly in large faults • No large faults mapped at The Geysers • It is extremely unlikely that injection activities at The Geysers will lead to large earthquakes 20

  22. Environmental Benefits Clean Energy 13 million gal/day of recycled water injection 100 megawatts 1 million barrels of oil per year 100,000 households 21

  23. Environmental Benefits Clean Energy 49 million liters/day of recycled water injection 100 megawatts 119 million liters of oil per year 100,000 households 21

  24. ConclusionWorldwide Application • Successful application of petroleum engineering tools • Sustained steam production through heat mining • Additional power generation and revenue • Identifying opportunities for environmental benefits • Successful government-industry collaboration 22

  25. Any Questions 23

  26. Your Feedback is Important Enter your section in the DL Evaluation Contest by completing the evaluation form for this presentation : Click on: Section Evaluation Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl

  27. Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy TechnologiesPublished byNational Academy of Sciences http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13355#orgs