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History of Medicne

History of Medicne

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History of Medicne

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  1. History of Medicne Body Systems

  2. Medical Traditions • Throughout the world there are numerous strands of medical traditions however, we will focus on three. • Ayurveda • Traditional Chinese Medicine • African Medical Traditions

  3. Ayurveda • Originates from India • Comes from the words Ayus (life) and Veda (knowledge or science) • The body has three main forces called Doshas • Your health, character and appearance are inlfuenced by the dominant Doshas

  4. Ayurveda as a Treatment • The goal of ayurvedic medicine is to bring the Doshas into a balance. • The pulse and the physical appearance can provide clues as to what is causing the imbalance. • Some therapies are designed to purge symptoms (vomiting,enemas), other to smooth symptoms • Concerned with preventing illness

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine • Weather, spirits and the time of day can all affect you according to TCM. • A cosmic energy force called qi (chi) connects everything in the universe and allows the surroundings to influence you. • Qi must flow freely through the body to promote harmony. • The qi is divided into ying and yang

  6. TCM as a Therapy • Illness is a symptom of an imbalance of ying and yang • Qi may be blocked, weak or imbalanced • Ying and yang influence appearance, pulse, sounds and smells of your body • Acupuncture, drugs or moxibustion are common treatments • Don´t have to be ill before treatment

  7. African Traditional Medicine • Varied throughout the continent, several similar features • Community based, holistic approach to medicine • Physical and spiritual aspects are equally important • Some illnesses are related specifically to one or the other

  8. ATM • Healers might ask why you are ill, diviners with special powers might be asked to find the source of disease • Treatments depend on the source of the problem • Massage and herbalist remedies are common • Communal song and dance are also prescribed frequently as remedies

  9. Western Medical Traditions- Ancient Greece • Humourism- belief that the body is composed of four basic substances (4 humours) in harmony when the body is healthy • Black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood • Treatments include bleeding and application of hot cups

  10. Andreas Vesalius • Prior to Vesalius learning anatomy consisted of reading the texts of ancient Greek physicians • First to use hands on dissections to teach about anatomy • Instead of digging up bodies in the dark he started to be allowed to do dissections on executed criminals • Produced fantastic diagrams based on human experimentation (Galen’s drawings were from apes)

  11. De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the fabric of the human body)

  12. De humani corporis fabrica

  13. De Humani Corporis Fabrica

  14. De Humani Corporis Fabrica

  15. De Humani Corporis Fabrica

  16. De Humani Corporis Fabrica

  17. Ambroise Pare • Pioneered many surgical treatments and specialized in the treatment of wounds • Used a mixture including turpentine to heal wounds (cleaned the wound) • Used ligatures of arteries to reduce blood flow and slow bleeding

  18. Ambroise Pare • Used cauterization techniques prior to amputation • Hypothesized that phantom pain after amputation arose in the brain • Revived the practice of podalic versiori to deliver babies not coming out safely

  19. Bezoar Stone Experiment • The Bezoar stone was reputed to be able to cure the effects of any poison • Pare’s cook was caught steeling silverware • The cook agreed to be poisoned to determine if the stone infact worked • The cook died days later proving that the Bezoar stone had no miraculous healing properties

  20. William Harvey • Described the process of blood being pumped around the body by the heart • Discovered how valves in the veins work • Postulated that the circulatory system was closed and that the heart re-circulated throughout the body • Clashed with Galen’s concept that blood was created in the liver and that there were two types of blood

  21. William Harvey • Theorized that there are two separate loops of the circulatory system, one to the lungs and the other to the rest of the body • Carried out dissections showing that embryos do not possess characteristics of adults

  22. Science and Medicine • Science, with its focus on observation and experimentation has lead to great advances in medicine • The following have all improved the efficacy of medicinal practice: • Germ theory • Bacteriology • Chemical analysis • Diagnostic technologies • Drug therapies

  23. Germ Theory • The source of disease and illness is biological stemming from virulent bacteria and viruses • Prevention of disease by sanitation and vaccination • Cure through anti-biotics

  24. Bacteriology • The study of bacteria has yielded numerous anti-biotics and an understanding about the positive and negative roles they have

  25. Chemical Analysis • Chemical analysis of body fluids can lead to a better understanding of how the body works and how diseases can be treated.

  26. Diagnostic technologies • Ultrasound, X-rays, Endoscopes, MRI and a number of other technologies can diagnose diseases easily and allow the practitioner to select an appropriate treatment.

  27. Drug Therapies • Using scientific experimentation a number of drugs have been developed for a wide array of diseases