Past, Present and Future of Research in the Information Society Tunis A Brief History of the Internet in Korea2005.11.13-15 Kilnam Chon KAIST Korea
Contents 1. Pre-Internet Period (1960s-1970s) 2. Birth of Korean Internet, SDN (1980s) 3. Prolification of the Internet 4. Commercial Internet Services Begin (Early 1990s) 5. Broadband Internet (Late 1990s) 6. Social Impact of the Internet Appendix
1. Pre-Internet Period(1960s-1970s) Basic computer network technology and concept proposed (1960s) Packet Switching,... Domestic research network developments(1970s) France, UK, USA(Arpanet),...
2. Birth of Korean Internet, SDN(1980s) 2.1 SDN(System Development Network) Begins Operation in 1982 TCP/IP 2 domestic nodes 1200 bps
SDN Map SDN Network Configuration (As of May 1985) Source: PCCS (October 1985)
2.2 UUCP and USENET deployment in 1983 Additional domestic nodes International links(Asia, Europe, North America) Dialup
AsiaNet - UUCP and USENET Asia/Pacific Net Source: PCCS (October 1985)
2.3 Korean Language Support in 1983 Email Editor
2.4 Commercial Email in 1984 Dacom-Net
2.5 Domain Name and IP Address .kr was introduced in 1986. IP Address was allocated in 1986(18.104.22.168)
2.6 Internet Coordination Academic Network Committee (ANC) was formed in 1986. It evolved to KNC in 1994, NNC in 1998, and IAPC in 2005. KRNIC was formed in early 1990s to handle IP address and DNS(.kr).
2.7 PC Communications (Bulletin Board and More) PC Communications started in 1984, and several commercial services took place in 1980s. PC Communications lead to the development of online communities.
2.8 PACCOM Project US NSF-funded project to connect countries in Asia-Pacific to Hawaii with TCP/IP, starting in 1989.
2.9 Pacific Computer Communications Symposium(1985) Conference focusing on computer networks including the Internet(TCP/IP) with participants from Asia, Europe and North America. Annual Joint Workshop on Computer Communications followed from 1986.
3. Prolification of the Internet 3.1 National Infrastructure ProjectFive National Information Network Project Plan was developed in 1983. Law on Expansion of Network Infrastructure and use was enacted in 1986.
3.2 WWW Begins WWW saw its major deployment in 1993 through development of WWW and Mosaic. Korea had the first website in 1993, too.
3.3 KRNET KRNET, domestic conference on the Internet, started its annual meeting in 1993.
4. Commercial Internet Services Begin (Early 1990s) Commercial Internet Service Providers(ISP) were established in 1994. Internet Exchange, KIX, was established in 1995 with more exchanges followed. First Internet news service was started by Joongang Daily News in 1995. Internet ventures started their operations in 1990s, and helped Many startup companies.
5. Broadband Internet (Late 1990s) Broadband Internet services started in 1998. Number of home users with broadband Internet access exceeded 12 millions in 2005, over 80% of the households. Broadband is becoming social infrastructure in 2000s.
6. Social Impact of the Internet 6.1 Negative Impact of the Internet Privacy infringement Addiction to services (such as game and gambling) Crime Virus Spam
6.2 Governmental Efforts Information Communication Ethics Committee Internet Crime Investigation Center Korea Spam Response Center
6.3 Balance between Individual Freedom and Regulation of Negative Impacts Efforts to address the negative impacts of the Internet have danger of infringing individual's freedom. Attempt to legislate the Internet Content Rating System was annulled due to civilian opposition. To place certain restrictions on electronic and telecommunication businesses in dealing with certain types of information was ruled unconstitutional in 2002.
6.4 Netizens In early 1990s, general public started to express their political and social opinions through the Internet. Various people started to set up websites to express their diverse views. Red Devils, the supporter club for the national soccer team opened their website in 2000, and played very active role to mobilize soccer fun in 2002 World Cup. During 2002 presidential election, online campaigns made the critical role on the election outcome. These netizen groups started their online communications in 1990s through PC communications, and exploit the new media, the Internet in 2000s.
19841985 ANW-AP PCCS/JWCC/ICOIN 1991 APNG(APCCIRN)Satellite Commercial Security WG WG WG 1992 1993 APNIC 1994 PAN 1995 AI3 1996 APOPS APRICOT APIA 1997 SOI-Asia APAN 1998 APBioNet APTLD AP*Retreat 1999 APEC ECSG 2000 MINC 2001 EUMED APGRID APDIP Silk Project Asia PKI Forum 2002 ABS PRAGMA APCAUCE APCERT 2003 SANOG 2004 TEIN2 APENUM Appendix : Genealogy of the Internet Organizations in Asia