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Performance-Based Financing in Rwanda. Agnes Soucat, Adviser HNP Africa Region. Background (1). Shortage of human resources for health services No cash resources in health facilities Low levels of productivity and motivation among medical personnel

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performance based financing in rwanda

Performance-Based Financing in Rwanda

Agnes Soucat, Adviser HNP Africa Region

background 1
Background (1)
  • Shortage of human resources for health services
  • No cash resources in health facilities
  • Low levels of productivity and motivation among medical personnel
  • Low user satisfaction & poor quality of service lead to low use.
  • High levels of child and maternal mortality
background 3
In 2005 , 4/10 births attended by a health professional.

Infant Mortality : 86 per 1,000

HIV : 3.1%

Background (3)

Source: Rwanda 2005: results from the demographic and health survey. 2008. Studies in family planning, 39(2), pp. 147-152.

Strengthening accountability in the health sector in Rwanda





Performance CONTRACTS

Umushyikirano, Citizen Report Cards, Ombusdman


Clients / Citizens







Rwanda has undertook major reforms to strengthen accountability of all institutional and individual actors for MDGs related results...
through a shift of paradigm
..through a shift of paradigm..
  • Decentralisation of health services with strong governance structures based community participation.
  • Imihigo: Performance contracts between President of Republic and mayor of Districts;
  • PBF: Performance Based Financing;
  • CBHI: Community Health Insurance;
  • Autonomy of health facilities, including hiring and firing of health personnel;
  • Administrative, fiscal and financial decentralization has provided huge sums of money to local levels of government and given them much flexibility by providing them with block grants
Financing has more than tripled in four years (going from USD 7.5 to 30.3 millions, of which the PBF has grown more than tenfold from USD 0.8 to 8.9 millions)
rwanda scaling up of community health insurance
Rwanda: Scaling up of community health insurance

Source: MOH Rwanda; 2005 EICV 2005

results show rwanda is now back on track towards the health mdgs
Results show Rwanda is now back on track towards the health MDGs…
  • Health outcomes
    • Neonatal, infant and child mortality
    • Malaria incidence and mortality
    • HIV
    • Improved financial access
    • Reduction of catastrophic expenditures
  • High Impact Interventions
    • ITNs
    • Family planning
    • Assisted Deliveries
    • Quality of care
rwanda is back on track to reach the mdgs
Rwanda is back on track to reach the MDGs

Under five mortality trends with MDG target for 2015

all income groups benefit but inequities still persist
All income groups benefit but inequities still persist …

Under five mortality trends by income quintile (2005-2007)

Source: DHS 2005 and 2007.

at all income levels those enrolled in mutuelles are much more likely to use health services
Rwanda Health InsuranceAt all income levels, those enrolled in mutuelles are much more likely to use health services.

Source: Shimeles et al, 2009

rwanda increase in utilization of high impact services
Rwanda : Increase in utilization of high impact services

Proportion (%) of children under 5 years of age who have slept under a mosquito bed-net during the night preceding the survey

increase in utilization of high impact services
Increase in utilization of high impact services

Trends in assistance at delivery : Years 2000, 2005, 2007

Percentage (%) of women delivered by a health professional

quality conceptual framework
Quality Conceptual Framework




What They Do: (Quality)

What They Know (Ability/Technology)

goal use pay for performance to close productivity gap
Goal: Use Pay for Performance to Close Productivity Gap

Production Possibility Frontier

What They Do

Productivity Gap Conditional on Ability

Actual Performance


researcher policy maker collaboration
Researcher & Policy Maker Collaboration

A collaboration between the Rwanda Ministry of Health, CNLS, and SPH, the INSP in Mexico, UC Berkeley and the World Bank

  • Research Team
    • Paulin Basinga, National University of Rwanda
    • Paul Gertler, UC Berkeley
    • Jennifer Sturdy, World Bank and UC Berkeley
    • Christel Vermeersch, World Bank
  • Policy Counterpart Team
    • Agnes Binagwaho, Rwanda MOH and CNLS
    • Louis Rusa, Rwanda Rwanda MOH
    • Claude Sekabaraga, Rwanda MOH
    • Agnes Soucat, World Bank
evaluation questions did pbf
Evaluation Questions: Did PBF…
  • Increase the quantity of contracted maternal health services delivered?
  • Improve the quality of contracted maternal health services provided?
evaluation design
Evaluation Design
  • During decentralization, phased rollout at district level
  • Identified districts without PBF in 2005
  • Group districts into “similar pairs” based on population density & livelihoods
  • Randomly assign one to treatment and other to control
  • MOH reallocated some districts to treatment
  • With decentralization, some new districts had PBF in an area of the new district – must be treatment
  • Unit of observation is health facility
isolating the incentive effect
Isolating the incentive effect
  • PBF
    • Performance incentives
    • Additional resources
  • Compensate control facilities with equal resources
    • Average of what treatments receive
    • Not linked to performance
    • Money allocated by the health center management
sample panel 165 facilities 2006 08
Sample: Panel 165 Facilities 2006-08
  • 2145 households in catchment areas
    • Random sample of 14 per clinic
log expenditures
Log Expenditures
  • Randomization balanced baseline
  • Follow-up balanced, so difference in follow-up outcomes due to incentives not resources
impact of pbf statistical methods
Impact of PBF: Statistical methods
  • Have balance at baseline on all key outcomes
  • Use difference in differences analysis
    • Not a pure randomized experiment
  • Clustered at district-year level
  • Facility Fixed Effects
  • Year dummy
  • Controls: age, parity, education, household size, health insurance, land, value of assets
delivery at the health facility increased overall in rwanda but 7 more in pbf facilities
Delivery at the health facility increased overall in Rwanda, but 7% more in PBF facilities ….
prenatal competency quality
Prenatal Competency & Quality
  • Provider knowledge/competency
    • Standardized vignette presented to provider
    • Compare answers to Rwandan CPG
    • Measure of ability/knowledge
  • Process quality
    • Patient exit interview of clinical services provided
    • Clinical content of care
    • Provider effort
results summary
Results Summary
  • Balanced at baseline
  • Expenditures same, so isolate incentives
  • Impact on utilization
    • Delivery & Child prevention, but not prenatal
  • Impact on prenatal quality
    • Bigger for better doctors
  • Reduced child morbidity & Taller children
  • Effect sizes bigger than most other interventions
  • PBF Effect seen despite many other national level intervention: possible bigger effect in other countries
  • Increase in utilization in country with national campaigns:
    • Mutuelle
    • Imihigo
    • HIV services
    • Safe motherhood and PCIME
    • Possible spill over effect to child health
discussions policy implications
Discussions/ Policy implications
  • You get what you pay for !
  • Returns to effort important
    • Bigger effects in things more in provider’s control
    • Patient or community health workers for prenatal care/Immunization
  • Provide incentives directly to pregnant women? (conditional cash transfer program).
  • Financial incentive to community health workers
  • Low quality of care : additional training coupled with PBF
  • Need to get prices “right”
  • Evaluation feedback useful
  • The original randomized designed was changed due to the political decentralization process: But sample well balanced!
  • Trend analysis with HMIS data ongoing
  • No measure of all paid and some non paid indicators : HMIS analysis
  • Cost effectiveness analysis
  • Funding by:
    • World Bank
    • Government of Rwanda (PHRD grant)
    • Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP)
    • GDN