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Outdoor Pursuits. " Life is either a daring adventure or nothing at all.” Helen Keller. Course requirements $85.00 fee paid by February 1 st ( cheque to HHS or Cash) Student participation form completed. Theory

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outdoor pursuits

Outdoor Pursuits

" Life is either a daring adventure or nothing at all.”Helen Keller


Course requirements

  • $85.00 fee paid by February 1st (cheque to HHS or Cash)
  • Student participation form completed.


  • There will be theory taught in the; classroom, outdoors, and gym there will be tests on all theory.
  • Students will be expected to keep a duo-tang with all notes, handouts, and assignments; this will be collected and marked periodically.
  • There will be 3 major term projects spaced out over the term. (one written MLA format, one class presentation, one video)
  • 3 Article reviews


  • Students are expected to actively participate in all activities.
  • Students will need both gym cloths and WARM outdoor clothing , we will spend as much time as possible outdoors)
  • There will be practical skills evaluation in a number of areas.

Out Trips/Community Projects

  • There will be trips planned for both outside school hours and during school time. These will be a major part of the Outdoor Pursuits experience and students will be marked on participation and performance as well as follow up assignments ie. Trip journal, peer evaluation etc.
  • Garden Project will be our school/community based project this year.

Compulsory Core

  • Fitness
  • Map & Compass
  • Planning an out trip
  • Group Relations
  • Cooking
  • Shelter/Sleeping
  • Equipment
  • First-Aid (CPR)
  • Leadership
  • Survival
  • Evaluation
  • Fire
  • Knots
  • Activities
  • General Fitness
  • Leadership games
  • Archery
  • Backpacking (weekend trip)
  • Canoe (weekend trip)
  • X-Country Skiing (Day trip)
  • Snowshoeing
  • Telemark Skiing
  • Camp Glenburn (1/2 Day trip)
  • Navigation
  • Community Garden
out trip s term 2 dates may change due to weather
Out Trips Term #2Dates may change due to weather
  • X Country Ski – February Morning
  • Poley Mt Skiing- Feb. or March Day Cost $
  • Camp Glenburn– April Morning
  • Spring Hike – May Weekend
  • Canoe Trip – June Weekend

Community Projects

  • Garden Project
11 0 outdoor evaluation
11-0 Outdoor Evaluation

-10% for each day an assignment is late.

  • Project #1 Essay Due February 28th
  • Article 1 Due March 17th
  • Project #2 PPT Presentation Due March 28th
  • Article 2 Due April 11th
  • Project #3 How to Video/Demo Due April 25th
  • Article 3 Due May 16th
  • Class Mark (homework, mini assignments, etc.)
  • 2 weekend trips
  • Tests
1 environmental issues research essay due february 28th
#1 Environmental Issues Research Essay Due February 28th
  • You must choose an environmental issue, it could be local, national or global, and write an essay in MLA format consisting of:
  • A topic approved by me
  • MLA Format
  • 3 pages typed double spaced
  • Format; Times New Roman, 12 font.
  • Complete work sited page at least 3 sources.
  • Please be aware that cut and paste (plagiarism) will be closely monitored, make sure you reference appropriately.
2 power point presentation due march 28th
#2 Power Point Presentation. Due March 28th
  • You must choose a piece of equipment or an activity, related to outdoor pursuits ie. camping, canoeing, tent etc. and prepare a presentation for the class using posters, power point, samples etc.
  • Your topic must be approved by me
  • 5 to 10 minute presentation to the class
  • You may bring in props to help with presentation.
3 informational how to video due april 25th
#3 Informational How To Video Due April 25th
  • You, and a partner if you wish, will create and informational “HOW TO VIDEO” on a topic we have or will cover in our Outdoor Pursuits class. Refer to Handout; Compulsory Core, Activities, Fitness.
  • Your topic must be approved by me
  • 5 to 10 minute video to show to the class.
  • One week prior to presentation, April 21st, you will hand in a story board with script and overview of your video.
4 reading response
#4 Reading Response
  • Read 3 newspaper or magazine articles related to outdoor adventure etc., hard copy of article must be included, write a review of each article.
  • 1 page for each assignment, 12 font double spaced.
basic equipment inventory
Basic Equipment Inventory
  • What do you have access to on the list?
  • Cold weather gear:
  • Winter jacket (ski)
  • Ski pants
  • Winter boots (warm!)
  • Dry fit shirt (long sleeve)
  • Long underwear
  • Fleece tops
  • Fleece pants
  • Warm gloves (mitts)
  • Winter hat
  • Rain coat and pants
  • Running shoes
  • Hiking Boots/shoes
  • Gym shorts/pants and tops
  • Equipment:
  • Snow shoes
  • X Country skis equipment
  • Downhill ski equipment
  • Hiking back pack
  • Tent 2 person
  • Tent 4 person
  • Tent 6 person
  • Sleeping bag summer
  • Sleeping bag winter
  • 1 person sleeping pad
  • Back pack stove
  • Hip waders
  • Rubber boots
  • Other _________________________________________________________________________________
hope for the best plan for the worst
Hope for the best plan for the worst!

You and 4 of your friends are going for a day hike, 3 hours in 3 hours out, in a remote hilly wooded area of Northern New Brunswick, it’s November (no cell service). What five items should you take knowing there is a chance that you might be stranded. Note that you are only allowed five items per team, not per person. Write the items on paper and be prepared to discuss and defend your choices with the whole group.

8 essentials for survival
8 Essentials for survival
  • Attitude
  • Shelter
  • Water
  • Food
  • Fire
  • Signaling
  • Navigation
  • First Aid
winter activity preparation
Winter Activity Preparation
  • Clothing
  • Footwear, socks
  • Hats, Gloves, Mittens
  • Weather watch
  • Frost bite
  • Shelter
  • Ski
  • Snow shoe
body heat loss

The body loses heat in five ways:






Homework; write in your note book a definition for each of above.

dress for success layering for activity
Dress For Success Layering for activity

+5 and above

+5 to -10

Below -10

layer 1 next to skin
Layer #1 Next to skin
  • Wicks sweat away from your skin.
  • Dries quickly so you don't get chilled.
  • Wool or wool blendsare very efficient, warm when it's cold, cool when it's hot, even if wet they hold heat in quite well also they don't stink like so many synthetics do.
  • Synthetic materials (polyesters dry-fit) also make good base layers, and people with very sensitive skin often find wool itchy, so dry-fit makes a good wicking, quick-drying option.
  • Cotton sucks at this because it takes forever to dry.
layer 2 insulation
Layer #2 Insulation
  • Traps your body heat.
  • It can range from lightweight fleeces and wool sweaters to puffy down jackets
  • In all but the coldest of weather, your insulation will remain in your pack while hiking etc., so your body heat can escape.
  • But as soon as you stop moving, put it on so you won't get cold as your sweat dries.
layer 3 shell
Layer #3 Shell
  • Blocks the wind.
  • Keeps you dry.
  • In summertime, you can get away with a light wind shell, but for more challenging weather and extended trips, you want a waterproof/breathable shell (like Gore-Tex or eVent) that keeps water out, but lets sweat vapor escape, so you don't get wet from perspiration inside your layering system.
  • Look for pit zips!

The guiding principle of layering is that you are regularly adding and removing layers to keep your body temperature even. An example; I start off on cold morning wearing my base layer a fleece and shell. As my body warms up, I stop to remove the shell. At lunch break, a breeze picks up, I immediately put the shell back on. After lunch the sun is out and it all comes off (except the base layer) and I start my activity. A late afternoon snow storms roll in. I throw on my fleece, and shell and open up the pit zips (underarm vents) and continue activity. I always make sure my extra layers are conveniently located in the outer pockets of my pack, so I can always reach them. http://www.backpacker.com/layering-101-dressing-for-winter-camping-hiking/videos/114

  • Water proof
  • Insulated, thinsulite measured in grams, felt
  • Socks, Wool blends, synthetics
  • Height depends on activity
hats gloves mittens
Hats, Gloves, Mittens
  • 70% of heat loss through your head
  • Hat with wool blends for warmth and a hood to cut wind.
  • Water proof/resistant Gloves for warmer weather and activities that need fingers to function
  • Water proof/resistant Mittens for colder activities
weather watch
Weather watch
  • Always check weather before heading out for an activity
  • Temperature-High and Low
  • Wind, wind chill-Speed and Direction (N,S,E,W important!)
  • Precipitation-fog, rain, snow.
  • Short and long range forecast
  • Understand weather changes rapidly and is dependent on the area you are in, be prepared for changes.
  • Barometric pressure very important! Homework-how does it affect weather??


weather terminology
Weather Terminology
  • Atmospheric Pressure- (also called air pressure or barometric pressure) The pressure asserted by the mass of the column of air directly above any specific point.
  • Barometric pressure- The actual pressure value indicated by a pressure sensor.
  • Beaufort Scale- A scale that indicates the wind speed using the effect wind has on certain familiar objects.
  • Ceiling- The height of the lowest layer of broken or overcast clouds.
  • Humidity-The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.
  • Jet Stream- Strong winds concentrated within a narrow band in the upper atmosphere. It normally refers to horizontal, high-altitude winds. The jet stream often "steers" surface features such as front and low pressure systems.
  • Squall- A strong wind characterized by a sudden onset in which the wind speed increases at least 16 knots and is sustained at 22 knots or more for at least one minute.
  • Wind Chill-The (equivalent) wind chill temperature is the temperature the body "feels" for a certain combination of wind and air temperature
  • http://www.erh.noaa.gov/box/glossary.htm
reading the weather
Reading the weather


  • Convection Currents
  • Ocean Currents
  • Jet Stream
  • Weather Fronts
  • Clouds
clouds are a very good indicator of weather
Clouds are a very good indicator of weather
  • Cirrus Clouds
  • Alto Clouds
  • Stratus Clouds
  • Cumulus Clouds

Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high clouds. They are composed of ice and are thin, wispy clouds blown in high winds into long streamers. Cirrus clouds are usually white and predict fair to pleasant weather. By watching the movement of cirrus clouds you can tell from which direction weather is approaching. When you see cirrus clouds, it usually indicates that a change in the weather will occur within 24 hours.


Cirrostratus clouds are thin, sheet like high clouds that often cover the entire sky. They are so thin that the sun and moon can be seen through them. Cirrostratus clouds usually come 12-24 hours before a rain or snow storm.


Cirrocumulus clouds appear as small, rounded white puffs that appear in long rows. The small ripples in the cirrocumulus clouds sometime resemble the scales of a fish. Cirrocumulus clouds are usually seen in the winter and indicate fair, but cold weather. In tropical regions, they may indicate an approaching hurricane.


Altostratus clouds are gray or blue-gray mid level clouds composed of ice crystals and water droplets. The clouds usually cover the entire sky. In the thinner areas of the clouds, the sun may be dimly visible as a round disk. Altostratus clouds often form ahead of storms with continuous rain or snow.


Altocumulus clouds are mid level clouds that are made of water droplets and appear as gray puffy masses. They usually form in groups. If you see altocumulus clouds on a warm, sticky morning, be prepared to see thunderstorms late in the afternoon.


Stratus clouds are uniform grayish clouds that often cover the entire sky. They resemble fog that doesn't reach the ground. Light mist or drizzle sometimes falls out of these clouds.


Stratocumulus clouds are low, puffy and gray. Most form in rows with blue sky visible in between them. Rain rarely occurs with stratocumulus clouds, however, they can turn into nimbostratus clouds.


Nimbostratus clouds form a dark gray, wet looking cloudy layer associated with continuously falling rain or snow. They often produce precipitation that is usually light to moderate.


Cumulus clouds are white, puffy clouds that look like pieces of floating cotton. Cumulus clouds are often called "fair-weather clouds". The base of each cloud is flat and the top of each cloud has rounded towers. When the top of the cumulus clouds resemble the head of a cauliflower, it is called cumulus congestus or towering cumulus. These clouds grow upward and they can develop into giant cumulonimbus clouds, which are thunderstorm clouds.


Cumulonimbus clouds are thunderstorm clouds. High winds can flatten the top of the cloud into an anvil-like shape. Cumulonimbus clouds are associated with heavy rain, snow, hail, lightning and even tornadoes. The anvil usually points in the direction the storm is moving.


Mammatus clouds are low hanging bulges that droop from cumulonimbus clouds. Mammatus clouds are usually associated with severe weather.

frostbite head hands and feet
Frostbite Head, hands and feet

Frostbite occurs when tissues freeze, happens when you are exposed to temperatures below the freezing point of skin.

Superficial frostbite, you may experience burning, numbness, tingling, itching, or cold sensations in the affected areas. The regions appear white and frozen.

Deep frostbite, decrease in sensation that is eventually completely lost. Swelling and blood-filled blisters are noted over white or yellowish skin that looks waxy and turns a purplish blue as it rewarms. May even appear blackened and dead.

frostbite treatment
Frostbite Treatment
  • Protect your skin from further exposure. If you're outside, warm frostbitten hands by tucking them into your armpits. Don't rub the affected area and never rub snow on frostbitten skin.
  • Get out of the cold. Once you're indoors, remove wet clothes
  • Gradually warm frostbitten areas. Put frostbitten hands or feet in warm water 40 to 42 C. Wrap or cover other areas in a warm blanket.
  • Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes if possible. This further damages the tissue.
  • If there's any chance the affected areas will freeze again, don't thaw them. If they're already thawed, wrap them up so that they don't become frozen again.
  • Get emergency medical help If numbness or sustained pain remains during warming or if blisters develop, seek medical attention.


Describes the rapid, progressive mental and physical collapse accompanying the chilling of the inner core of the human body. Hypothermia is caused by exposure to cold, aggravated by wet, wind, and exhaustion. It is the number one killer of outdoor recreationalists.

avoid exposure

1. STAY DRY. When clothes get wet, they lose about ninety percent of their insulating value. Wool loses less as does many of the new synthetics. Cotton and wet down are worthless.2. BEWARE OF THE WIND. A slight breeze carries heat away from bare skin much faster than still air. Wind drives cold air under and through clothing. Wind refrigerates wet clothes by evaporating moisture from the surface. WIND MULTIPLIES THE PROBLEMS.If you have been in the water and you are wearing a T-shirt that is wet remove it and you will retain more heat. Direct sunlight on the skin helps in the warming process.3. UNDERSTANDING COLD. Most hypothermia cases develop in air temperatures between 1 and 10 degrees Celsius. Most outdoor enthusiast simply can't believe such temperatures can be dangerous. They fatally underestimate the danger of being wet at such temperatures.

Bay of Fundy averages 6 to 10 degrees Celsius

cold kills in two distinct steps exposure and exhaustion
  • The moment your body begins to loose heat faster than it produces it, you are undergoing exposure. Two things happen:
  • You voluntarily exercise to stay warm.
  • Your body makes involuntary adjustments to preserve normal temperature in the vital organs, and you start shivering.Either response drains your energy reserves. The only way to stop the drain is to reduce the degree of exposure.
exposure and gradual exhaustion
  • If exposure continues until your energy reserves are exhausted:
  • Cold reaches the brain depriving you of good judgment and reasoning power.
  • You will lose control of your hands.
  • Your internal temperature is sliding downward. Without treatment, this slide leads to stupor, collapse, and death.
  • You will not realize this is happening.
terminate exposure
  • Get out of the wind and rain. Build a fire. Concentrate on making your camp or bivouac as secure and comfortable as possible


pay attention
Pay attention!
signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
  • If your group is exposed to WIND, COLD, and WETthink hypothermia. Watch yourself and others for the symptoms:

1.Uncontrollable fits of shivering.2.Vague, slow, slurred speech.3.Memory lapses, or incoherence.4.Immobile, fumbling hands.5.Frequent stumbling.

6.Drowsiness (to sleep is to die.)7.Exhaustion. Inability to get up after a rest.

treatment of hypothermia

The victim may deny he/she is in trouble. Believe the symptoms, not the person. Even mild symptoms demand immediate treatment.

  • Get the victim out of the wind and rain.
  • Strip off all wet clothes.
  • If the victim is only mildly impaired:
  • Give him/her warm drinks. (only small amounts)
  • Get him/her into dry clothes and a warm dry sleeping bag.
  • Well-wrapped warm (not hot) rocks or canteens placed in the crotch and under the arms anywhere the main arteries are close to the surface of the skin, will hasten recovery.

If the patient is semi-conscious or worse:

  • Try to keep him/her awake. (Do not give hot liquids by mouth.)
  • Leave him/her stripped. Put him/her in a sleeping bag with another person (also stripped) to transfer heat. If you can put the victim between two others, skin to skin contact is very effective treatment.
  • Build a fire to warm canteens and rocks for warming the victim.
  • Transport the victim as soon as possible to the closest hospital for monitoring. It takes a very long time to warm the inner core DON'T DELAY!
hypothermia in water
  • Loss of body heat to the water is a major cause of deaths in boating accidents. Often the cause of death is listed as drowning but often the primary cause is hypothermia. It should also be noted that alcohol lowers the body temperature around two to three degrees by dilating the blood vessels.



winter shelter
Winter Shelter

Designed to:

  • Insulate
  • Protect from wind
  • Protect from storms
  • Require a lot of energy to make
  • A quinzhee begins with people mounding snow which is then allowed time to settle.
  • Hollowed out to make low-ceilinged living space for temporary human shelter inside the frozen snow mound.
winter fire
Winter Fire

Starting a fire in a cold wet environment is no easy task.

You will need:

  • An igniter
  • Sheltered area
  • Dry bed of materials
  • Starter material
  • Dry tinder
  • Dry fuel

Prepare everything very well before attempting to lite your fire, you my only get one chance!

  • Matches - ideally water proof
  • Lighter – bic is very reliable
  • Magnesium/Flint

Create your own fire starters

  • Dryer lint
  • Cotton balls & Vaseline
  • Birch bark
  • Pine cones
  • Sawdust
  • Wax-will waterproof and extend burn.


Homework; research and make your own fire starter.

winter trip planning
Winter Trip Planning
  • Weather forecast
  • Mode of transportation; ski, snowshoe, 4 wheeler etc.
  • Destination; accessibility, cell reception, distance, map etc.
  • Shelter; tents, natural
  • Clothing
  • Food; stove, meal plan, fire
  • Water
  • First Aid and emergency plan
telemark skiing
Telemark Skiing



  • Started as a mode of transportation for people in snow bound countries.
  • Could be used on flat or hilly terrain.
  • Often used for hunting and trapping.
  • Downhill/Cross Country
cross country skiing
Cross country Skiing
  • Classic



  • Skate Skiing



downhill skiing
Downhill Skiing
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-FTj-alwDs