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  1. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Part Four Language Study ENTER

  2. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Language Study Contents • Word Study • Phrases and Expressions • Word Building • Grammar

  3. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study Word list: • append • aristocratic • beckon • bind • conciliate • doubt • designate • disperse • dissolve • dwindle • enlist • havoc 13. hound 14. momentous 15. outnumber 16. resolve 17. spare 18. successive

  4. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study Synonyms 1. append add attach affix join v. to add or join (esp. something written or printed) to a piece of paper Examples: • They appended their signatures to the statement. • appendix n.附录;阑尾 Antonym detach

  5. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 2. aristocratic a. belonging to or typical of the highest social class, who traditionally have a lot of land, money and power Examples: • an aristocratic family • her aristocratic manners • aristocracyn.贵族,上层社会,知识界杰出分子 • aristocrat n.贵族

  6. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 3. beckon Synonyms gesture invite motion signal v. to call, order, or signal with a movement of the head, hand, etc. Examples: • I could see her beckoning (to) me from the other side of the room. • I’d like to stay—but work beckons, you know.

  7. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 4. bind v. to form a strong emotional or economic connection between two people, two countries, etc. Examples: • Commerce binds the two countries together. • The welfare of the individual is bound up with the welfare of the community. • binding a.有约束力的 • The statement is unofficial and not binding on either country.

  8. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study Synonyms 5. conciliate alleviate moderate soothe v. to win the support or friendly feelings of (someone), removing the anger or distrust they felt before Antonyms Examples: • The explorers tried to conciliate the natives with presents. • The government ignored the union’s attempts at conciliation (n.安抚;调和). • conciliatory a.安抚的,和好的 • aconciliatorygesture/ attitude alienate estrange

  9. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 6. doubt Usage v.a. to be uncertain about; not trust or have confidence in b. to consider unlikely Examples: • I doubt his honesty. • I doubt that she will get the job. • I doubt if/whether we will make a profit out of it. To be continued on the next page.

  10. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study In negative statementsdoubtis followed by that: • I don’t doubt that he’s telling the truth. In other statementsdoubtis often followed by if or that, though some people feel whether is the only correct form here: • I doubt whether he’s telling the truth.

  11. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study Synonyms 7. designate appoint indicate nominate specify v.a. to choose or name for a particular job or purpose b.to point out of call by a special name Examples: • The Town Hall has been designated (as) an emergency feeding center in the event of an enemy attack. • These crosses on the drawing designate all the possible entrances to the castle.

  12. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 8. disperse Synonyms distribute scatter spread v.a. to scatter or spread in different directions, so as to be no longer present b. to place at different points Antonyms Examples: • Police used tear gas to disperse the crowd. • Groups of police were dispersed all along the street where the Queen was to pass. collect gather

  13. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 9. dissolve Decide the meaning of “dissolve” according to a, b, c and d. v.a. to make or become liquid by putting into liquid b. to (cause to) end or break up c.to lose one’s self-control d.to disappear She dissolved in tears. Dissolve the tablets in warm water.  The vision dissolved before her eyes.  The military government dissolved the country’s parliament. c a d b

  14. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 10. dwindle Synonyms decline decrease diminish lessen shrink v. to become steadily fewer or smaller Examples: • The number of people who live on the island is rapidly dwindling. • Membership has dwindled to only 25.

  15. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 11. enlist Synonyms v.a. to (cause to) join the armed forces b.to join a course of study enroll join Examples: • He enlisted when he was 18. • enlisted man 士兵 • I’ve enlisted in the Women’s Studies course.

  16. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study Synonyms 12. havoc damage destruction devastation ruin wreck n. widespread damage or serious disorder Examples: • The earthquake wreaked havoc on the city.

  17. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study Synonyms 13. hound chase drive hunt press pursue urge v. to keep following someone and asking them questions in an annoying and threatening way Examples: • I must finish the work so my boss will stop hounding me. • He was hounded out of public life by the persistent attacks of the popular newspapers.

  18. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 14. momentous Synonyms a. of very great importance or seriousness, esp. because of possible future effects eventful important serious Examples: • a momentous decision • a momentous occasion • a momentous event

  19. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 15. outnumber Synonyms v. to be more in numbers than Examples: • We were completely outnumbered by the enemy. • We outnumbered them (by) four to one. exceed surpass

  20. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 16. resolve Decide themeaning of “resolve” according to the sentences. v.a. to find a satisfactory way of dealing with a difficulty b.to decide firmly The dispute among them should be resolved by consultation. She resolved to study harder. a b

  21. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 17. spare v.a. to treat mercifully b. to give someone something you are not using or can do without c.to avoid doing something difficult, boring, unpleasant etc. for somebody Examples: • Take my money but spare my life! • Can you spare me ten minutes? • Use the telephone and spare yourself a visit. a.备用的;额外的;空闲的 • a spare bedroom/pen/tyre • spare time/moment

  22. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Study 18. successive Synonyms a. following each other closely succeeding following in a row Examples: • It happened on two successive days. • There had been successive waves of invaders. succession n.连续;演替 • The days followed each other in close succession and still no news came. • A succession of visitors came to the door. The end of Word Study.

  23. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions List: • as a token of • in close pursuit • dig in • drop out • exult in • inflict on • nothing but • set in motion • touch off • tuck in

  24. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 1. as a token of something that represents a feeling, fact, event, etc. Examples: • All the family wore black as a token of their grief. • This old watch was given to me by a French friend of mine as a token of friendship.

  25. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 2. in close pursuit following close behind Examples: • The police car raced through the streets in close pursuit of another car. • The pop starts ran from the theater to their car, with dozens of fans in close/hot pursuit.

  26. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 3. dig in a. to dig a hole to protect a soldier in war b. to mix (something) into the soil by digging c.to establish (oneself) in a position Examples: • The soldiers were ordered to dig (themselves) in. • We’re digging some fertilizer in the soil. • I like my new job but I haven’t had time to dig myself in yet.

  27. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 4. drop out (of) “drop” phrases tostop attending or taking part in Examples: • He dropped out of college after only two weeks. • Three of the runners dropped out. To be continued on the next page.

  28. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions Cf. • The guests droppedaway one by one. • The soldiers droppedback before the enemy’s attack. • Some friends droppedin to tea. • Sales have droppedoff.

  29. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 5. exult in to show that you are very happy and proud, esp. because you have succeeded in doing something Examples: • The soldiers exulted in/at their victory. • The headmaster exulted in the school team’s victory.

  30. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 6. inflict on to make someone suffer something unpleasant Examples: • We inflicted a fatal blow on the enemy. • Mary has inflicted the children on her mother for the weekend.

  31. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 7. nothing but (fml.) only Examples: • Nothingbut a miracle can save him. • It is nothingbut a joke.

  32. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 8. set in motion to start a process Examples: • The worker set the engine inmotion. • The machine has been setinmotion. • At that time it required great courage to setinmotion such a reform.

  33. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 9. touch off to start a difficult situation or violent event Examples: • Some slight incident may touchoff a major war. • His remarks touchedoff a heated controversy. “touch” phrases To be continued on the next page.

  34. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions Cf. • The plane toucheddown at 15:25. (to land) • In her speech she touchedon the need for further economies. (to talk about shortly) • The car’s paintwork needs touchingup. (to improve by making small changes or additions)

  35. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Phrases and Expressions 10. tuck in to put the edge of a piece of clothing, paper etc. inside something so that it looks tidier or stays in place Examples: • He tucked his shirt in. • Tuck your shirt into your trousers. The end of Phrases and Expressions.

  36. Word Building List: • Prefix—out • Root—scribe/script • Suffix—ion

  37. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Building prefix out:out, beyond outnumber; outrace 凌驾,胜过 生长速度超过 被放逐者,罪犯,恶徒 开销,支出 轮廓;概要 生存得比······更长 追过,胜过 胜过 跑得较快;追过 比······更亮 比······耐用 以机智胜过 outdo outgrow outlaw outlay outline outlive outpace outrival outrun outshine outwear outwit

  38. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Building root scribble scribe, script :to write 抄写者,作家 临时股票,代用纸币 手迹,脚本 经文,经典 归因于 征兵 描写 题名 规定,处方 署名,捐款,订阅 scribe scrip script scripture ascribe conscribe description inscription prescription subscription

  39. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word Building Suffix— -ion More examples n. the act, state, or result of Examples: • reconciliation (=the result of reconciliating) • presentation (=the act of presenting something) To be continued on the next page.

  40. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Word building Suffix— -ion Give corresponding nouns of the following verbs. • dissolve • designate • exhaust • inflict • exult • resolve • disperse • rebel • humiliate • provide • dissolution • designation • exhaustion • infliction • exultation • resolution • dispersion • rebellion • humiliation • provision The end of Word Building.

  41. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar Absolute Construction Definition: Absolute constructions consist of a noun and some kind of modifier, the most common being a participle. Because they often come at the beginning of a sentence, they are easily confused with dangling participles. But an absoluteconstruction modifies the rest of the sentence, not the subject of the sentence (as a participial phrase does). You can use absolute constructions to compress two sentences into one and to vary sentence structure as a means of holding a reader’s interest.     Examples To be continued on the next page.

  42. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar No other business arising, the meeting was adjourned. The paint now dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. The truck finally loaded, they said goodbye to their neighbors and drove off. The horse loped across the yard, her foal trailing behind her. To be continued on the next page.

  43. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar Absolute Construction The formation of these constructions falls into five categories. Noun/pronoun + • present participle (phrase) • past participle (phrase) • adjective (phrase) • adverb (phrase) • prepositional phrase To be continued on the next page.

  44. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar Absolute Construction Constructions like these are used more often in writing thaninspeaking,whereitismorecommon to use a full clause: When the paint was dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. There are, however, many fixed absolute constructions that occur frequently in speech: The picnic is scheduled for Saturday, weather permitting. Barring bad weather, we plan to go to the beach tomorrow. All things considered, it’s not a bad idea. To be continued on the next page.

  45. noun + past participle phrase Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar Absolute Construction On April 2nd, his railroad lifeline cut by the North, Lee retreated. (4) To be continued on the next page.

  46. noun + present participle phrase Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar Absolute Construction … he gave word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position…, honor answering honor. (14) To be continued on the next page.

  47. noun + present participle phrase Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox • Grammar Absolute Construction … one, symbolizing nobility and the aristocratic tradition of the old South, and the other symbolizing the self-made common man of the new North, Midwest and West. (19) The end of Grammar.

  48. Lesson 14 – Mercy at Appomattox Part Four Language Study This is the end of Part Four. Please click HOME to visit other parts.