Chapter 1 Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 1 Introduction PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 1 Introduction

play fullscreen
1 / 27
Chapter 1 Introduction
59 Views
Download Presentation
konala
Download Presentation

Chapter 1 Introduction

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 1Introduction Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach 6th edition Jim Kurose, Keith RossAddison-WesleyMarch 2012 CS3516: These slides are generated from those made available by the authors of our text. Introduction

  2. Lecture 1: roadmap 1.1 what is the Internet? 1.2 network edge end systems, access networks, links 1.7history our goal: • get “feel” and terminology • more depth, detail later in course Introduction

  3. What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running network apps PC server wireless laptop smartphone wireless links wired links router mobile network global ISP home network • communication links • fiber, copper, radio, satellite • transmission rate: bandwidth regional ISP • Packet switches: forward packets (chunks of data) • routers and switches institutional network Introduction

  4. “Fun” internet appliances Web-enabled toaster + weather forecaster IP picture frame http://www.ceiva.com/ Tweet-a-watt: monitor energy use Slingbox: watch, control cable TV remotely Internet refrigerator Internet phones Introduction

  5. Internet: “network of networks” Interconnected ISPs protocolscontrol sending, receiving of msgs e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, Skype, 802.11 Internet standards RFC: Request for comments IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view mobile network global ISP home network regional ISP institutional network Introduction

  6. What’s the Internet: a service view Infrastructure that provides services to applications: Web, VoIP, email, games, e-commerce, social nets, … provides programming interface to apps hooks that allow sending and receiving app programs to “connect” to Internet provides service options, analogous to postal service mobile network global ISP home network regional ISP institutional network Introduction

  7. What’s a protocol? human protocols: “what’s the time?” “I have a question” introductions … specific msgs sent … specific actions taken when msgs received, or other events network protocols: machines rather than humans all communication activity in Internet governed by protocols protocols define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt Introduction

  8. a human protocol and a computer network protocol: Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross Got the time? 2:00 time What’s a protocol? Hi TCP connection request Hi TCP connection response <file> Q: other human protocols? Introduction

  9. Lecture 1: roadmap 1.1 what is the Internet? 1.2 network edge end systems, access networks, links 1.7history Introduction

  10. A closer look at network structure: network edge: hosts: clients and servers servers often in data centers mobile network global ISP home network • access networks, physical media: wired, wireless communication links regional ISP • network core: • interconnected routers • network of networks institutional network Introduction

  11. Access networks and physical media Q: How to connect end systems to edge router? residential access nets institutional access networks (school, company) mobile access networks keep in mind: bandwidth (bits per second) of access network? shared or dedicated? Introduction

  12. Access net: digital subscriber line (DSL) ISP voice, data transmitted at different frequencies over dedicated line to central office DSL access multiplexer central office telephone network DSL modem splitter DSLAM • use existing telephone line to central office DSLAM • data over DSL phone line goes to Internet • voice over DSL phone line goes to telephone net • < 2.5 Mbps upstream transmission rate (typically < 1 Mbps) • < 24 Mbps downstream transmission rate (typically < 10 Mbps) Introduction

  13. C O N T R O L D A T A D A T A V I D E O V I D E O V I D E O V I D E O V I D E O V I D E O 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 Channels Access net: cable network cable headend … cable modem splitter frequency division multiplexing: different channels transmitted in different frequency bands Introduction

  14. cable modem termination system data, TV transmitted at different frequencies over shared cable distribution network ISP Access net: cable network cable headend … cable modem splitter CMTS • HFC: hybrid fiber coax • asymmetric: up to 30Mbps downstream transmission rate, 2 Mbps upstream transmission rate • network of cable, fiber attaches homes to ISP router • homes share access networkto cable headend • unlike DSL, which has dedicated access to central office Introduction

  15. often combined in single box cable or DSL modem router, firewall, NAT wireless access point (54 Mbps) wired Ethernet (100 Mbps) Access net: home network wireless devices to/from headend or central office Introduction

  16. Enterprise access networks (Ethernet) institutional link to ISP (Internet) institutional router Ethernet switch institutional mail, web servers • typically used in companies, universities, etc • 10 Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps transmission rates • today, end systems typically connect into Ethernet switch Introduction

  17. Wireless access networks shared wireless access network connects end system to router via base station aka “access point” wide-area wireless access • provided by telco (cellular) operator, 10’s km • between 1 and 10 Mbps • 3G, 4G: LTE wireless LANs: • within building (100 ft) • 802.11b/g (WiFi): 11, 54 Mbps transmission rate to Internet to Internet Introduction

  18. Host: sends packets of data two packets, L bits each 1 2 R: link transmission rate host L (bits) R (bits/sec) time needed to transmit L-bit packet into link packet transmission delay = = host sending function: • takes application message • breaks into smaller chunks, known as packets, of length L bits • transmits packet into access network at transmission rate R • link transmission rate, aka link capacity, aka link bandwidth

  19. Physical media bit:propagates betweentransmitter/receiver pairs physical link: what lies between transmitter & receiver guided media: signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiber, coax unguided media: signals propagate freely, e.g., radio twisted pair (TP) two insulated copper wires Category 5: 100 Mbps, 1 Gpbs Ethernet Category 6: 10Gbps Introduction

  20. Physical media: coax, fiber coaxial cable: two concentric copper conductors bidirectional broadband: multiple channels on cable HFC fiber optic cable: • glass fiber carrying light pulses, each pulse a bit • high-speed operation: • high-speed point-to-point transmission (e.g., 10’s-100’s Gpbs transmission rate) • low error rate: • repeaters spaced far apart • immune to electromagnetic noise Introduction

  21. Physical media: radio signal carried in electromagnetic spectrum no physical “wire” bidirectional propagation environment effects: reflection obstruction by objects interference radio link types: • terrestrial microwave • e.g. up to 45 Mbps channels • LAN (e.g., WiFi) • 11Mbps, 54 Mbps • wide-area (e.g., cellular) • 3G cellular: ~ few Mbps • satellite • Kbps to 45Mbps channel (or multiple smaller channels) • 270 msec end-end delay • geosynchronous versus low altitude Introduction

  22. Lecture 1: roadmap 1.1 what is the Internet? 1.2 network edge end systems, access networks, links 1.7 history Introduction

  23. Internet history 1961: Kleinrock - queueing theory shows effectiveness of packet-switching 1964: Baran - packet-switching in military nets 1967: ARPAnet conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency 1969: first ARPAnet node operational 1972: ARPAnet public demo NCP (Network Control Protocol) first host-host protocol first e-mail program ARPAnet has 15 nodes 1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles Introduction

  24. 1970: ALOHAnet satellite network in Hawaii 1974: Cerf and Kahn - architecture for interconnecting networks 1976: Ethernet at Xerox PARC late70’s: proprietary architectures: DECnet, SNA, XNA late 70’s: switching fixed length packets (ATM precursor) 1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes Cerf and Kahn’s internetworking principles: minimalism, autonomy - no internal changes required to interconnect networks best effort service model stateless routers decentralized control define today’s Internet architecture Internet history 1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets Introduction

  25. 1983: deployment of TCP/IP 1982: smtp e-mail protocol defined 1983: DNS defined for name-to-IP-address translation 1985: ftp protocol defined 1988: TCP congestion control new national networks: Csnet, BITnet, NSFnet, Minitel 100,000 hosts connected to confederation of networks Internet history 1980-1990: new protocols, a proliferation of networks Introduction

  26. early 1990’s:ARPAnet decommissioned 1991:NSF lifts restrictions on commercial use of NSFnet (decommissioned, 1995) early 1990s: Web hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson 1960’s] HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee 1994: Mosaic, later Netscape late 1990’s: commercialization of the Web late 1990’s – 2000’s: more killer apps: instant messaging, P2P file sharing network security to forefront est. 50 million host, 100 million+ users backbone links running at Gbps Internet history 1990, 2000’s: commercialization, the Web, new apps Introduction

  27. 2005-present ~750 million hosts Smartphones and tablets Aggressive deployment of broadband access Increasing ubiquity of high-speed wireless access Emergence of online social networks: Facebook: soon one billion users Service providers (Google, Microsoft) create their own networks Bypass Internet, providing “instantaneous” access to search, emai, etc. E-commerce, universities, enterprises running their services in “cloud” (eg, Amazon EC2) Internet history Introduction