Warm – Up 9/9 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Warm – Up 9/9

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  1. Warm – Up 9/9 • What are the four conditions that influence the amount of runoff an area would have? • Get out your surface water notes from Friday to prepare for today’s quiz.

  2. Surface Water Movement

  3. Surface Water • What types of bodies of water constitute surface water? • River, lakes, streams, ponds, and seas • Where does surface water come from? • Rain, Ice, Snow, and Under the ground

  4. Hydrologic Cycle • Earth’s water supply is recycled in a continuous process

  5. Hydrologic Cycle • Evaporation-Movement of water from Earth’s surface to atmosphere • Condensation- Movement from water vapor to clouds • Precipitation- water falls back on Earth • Infiltration- Water soaking into the Earth • Runoff- water on earth’s surface that flows downslope into lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, or puddles • Transpiration- water vapor from plants; Similar to evaporation

  6. Runoff • A number of conditions determine whether water on Earth’s surface will infiltrate the ground or become runoff. • Vegetation • causes the soil to hold more water • water flows slower down plants allowing the ground to soak in more • Rate of Precipitation- • More water enters ground if rainfall is gentle • During heavy downpours , the rate of precipitation may exceed the rate of infiltration

  7. Runoff • Soil Composition: Determines how much water soil can hold • Slope: the steeper the slope, the less water is allowed to soak into the ground

  8. Stream Systems • Stream System- Large river and all of its tributaries • Water flows downslope to lower elevations • Can flow into lakes, oceans and other streams

  9. Stream Systems • Tributaries • Rivers that flow into other streams • Example: Missouri river is a tributary for the Mississippi

  10. Stream Systems • Water Sheds • All of the land whose water drains into a stream • Divide • A high land that separates one watershed from another

  11. Stream Systems • Stream Load: the material that a stream carries. Stream load is carried in 3 ways: • solution: material dissolved in water 2. suspension: particles small enough to be held up by the turbulence of moving water (silt, sand, clay) 3. bed load: sand pebbles and cobbles that are rolled and pushed along the stream bed by water

  12. Stream Velocity and Carrying Power • Carrying power: streams ability to transport material; this is dependent on stream velocity and volume • Stream velocity: effected by slope, depth, width of the stream • Discharge: width x depth x velocity • When discharge increases, carrying power increases • Increases during heavy rain, rapid snowmelt, and flooding

  13. Floodplains • Flood- water spills over the sides of stream banks and onto adjacent lands • Floodplain- the area of land covered with stream water during times of floods • When water recedes off the floodplain, sediments are deposited on the land making the soil very fertile

  14. Floods • Upstream flood: the flooding of a small area caused by a sudden rainstorm dropping large amounts of time (flashflood) • Downstream flood: heavy accumulation of excess water from large regional drainage

  15. Streams, Wetlands, and Lakes

  16. Stream Development • Stream formation relies on adequate water supply • As a stream develops it changes width and size, and shapes the land over which it flows

  17. Formation of Stream Valleys • Driving force of a stream- gravity • Stream actively erodes a path through the sediment or rock, a V-shaped channel develops

  18. Meander • As stream channels develop into broader valleys , the volume of water and sediment that they can carry increases. • Sometimes the water begins to erode the sides of the channel in such a way that the overall path starts to bend and wind. • A bend or curve is called a meander.

  19. Meander

  20. Origins of Lakes • Lakes can form from many different sources • Stream flows become blocked • Glacial origins • Melted glaciers • Water from precipitation , runoff, and underground sources can maintain a lake’s water supply

  21. Lakes Undergo Change • Eutrophication: when watershed enriches bodies of water with nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth • Can be positive or negative

  22. Wetlands • Wetland: low lying area that is periodically saturated with water and support a specific plant species • Areas include bogs, marshes, or swamps