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Staphylococcus. Staphylococceae family. Low G + C Cocci (spheres) Grapelike clusters 3 planes 1 micrometer diameter FA Nonmotile, NSF Halotoerant Catalase (+) Oxidase (-) +/- fermentation. Staphylococcus species. 61 species Important S. aureus S. epidermidis S. saprophyticus

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staphylococceae family
Staphylococceae family
  • Low G + C
  • Cocci (spheres)
  • Grapelike clusters
    • 3 planes
    • 1 micrometer diameter
  • FA
  • Nonmotile, NSF
  • Halotoerant
  • Catalase (+)
  • Oxidase (-)
  • +/- fermentation
staphylococcus species
Staphylococcus species
  • 61 species
  • Important
    • S. aureus
    • S. epidermidis
    • S. saprophyticus
    • S. pseudointermedius
  • Others
    • S. haemolyticus
    • S. capitus
    • S. hominis
    • S. xylosis
    • S. warneri
location
Location
  • Ubiquitous
  • Normal flora
    • Skin
    • Mouth
    • Nose
    • Throat
  • Predisposing factors
    • Immunosuppression
    • Concurrent disease
    • AB resistance
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • Normal microbiotica
  • Direct transmission
  • Portal of Entry
    • Hair follicle
    • Break in skin
    • Respiratory
  • Complications
    • Bacteremia
    • Septecemia
    • Abscess
pathogenesis
Pathogenesis
  • Immune evasion
    • Slime layer biofilm (microcapsule)
      • Evades phagocytosis
    • Protein A on cell wall
      • Binds to IgG @ Fc
      • Blocks opsonization
  • Adhesin proteins
    • Binds to fibrin/fibrinogen
    • Binds to ECM
      • laminin
      • fibronectin
      • collagen
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Coagulase
  • Catalase
  • Hyaluronidase
  • Lipase
  • Beta lactamase
  • Staphylokinase (plasminogen activator)
  • Proteases
  • DNase
  • FAME (fatty acid modifying enzyme)
staphylococcus toxins
Staphylococcus Toxins
  • Cytolytic Toxins
    • Alpha = βhemolysis
    • Beta = sphingomyelinase
    • Delta
    • Gamma
    • Leukocidin = hemolysis
    • Leukotoxin = WBC destruction
  • Exfoliative toxin
    • ETA and ETB
    • Protease & esterase activity
  • Toxic Shock toxins
  • Enterotoxins (A-E)
superantigens
Superantigens
  • Enterotoxin
    • Food poisoning, V/D
    • TSS if B or C antigenic type
  • TSST-1: desquamation; TSS
staph aureus
Staph aureus
  • Location
    • Mucous membranes
    • Moist areas
  • Diseases
    • Noninvasive
      • Food poisoning
      • Enterotoxin (V/D)
    • Cutaneous
      • Scalded skin
      • Impetigo
      • Folliculitis
      • Boils, styes, furunculosis
    • Systemic
      • Soft tissue infections
systemic staph aureus infections
Systemic Staph. aureus infections
  • TSS
  • Bacteremia
  • Endocarditis
  • Pneumonia
  • Meningitis
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Septic arthritis
  • UTI
  • Phlebitis
s aureus
S. aureus
  • Dx
    • Isolation
    • DDx MRSA/VRSA
  • Tx
    • AB based on culture
  • Prevention
    • Wound cleansing
    • Hand washing
slide17
MRSA
  • Hosptial associated
  • Community assoc.
slide19
VRSA

vanA operon from enterococcus changes cell wall tripeptide sequence

opportunistic staph pathogens
Opportunistic Staph pathogens
  • S. capitis
  • S. epidermidis
  • S. saprophyticus
  • S. xylosis
s epidermidis
S. epidermidis
  • Location
    • Normal skin flora
    • opportunistic pathogen
      • Skin/wound infections
      • Endocarditis
      • UTI
  • Exposure
    • Direct contact
      • Newborns
      • Elderly
    • Fomites
      • Catheters
      • Shunts
      • IV needles
      • Prosthetics
s saprophyticus
S. saprophyticus
  • Pathogenesis
    • Fimbria
    • Adhesion proteins
    • Autolysins
  • Diseases
    • UTI/cystitis
    • Peritonitis
    • Enopthalmitis
    • Endocaritis
    • Septic arthritis
s xylosus
S. xylosus
  • Commensal
  • Industry
    • Ferment meat
    • Red color of sausage
    • Ferment milk
    • Orange color of cheese
  • Pathogenicity
    • Biofilms
    • Enterotoxins
  • Disease
    • Nosocomial
    • UTI
    • Food poisoning (raw)
s capitis
S. capitis
  • Epidemiology
    • Skin microbiotica
    • Head predominantly
  • Pathogenicity
    • Coagulase (-)
    • AB resistance
  • Diseases
    • Valvular endocarditis
    • Neonatal septicemia
    • Osteomyelitis
s pseudointermedius
S. pseudointermedius
  • Animal microbiotica
  • Epidemiology
    • Zoonotic
    • Enterotoxins
    • +/- coagulase
  • Diseases
    • Pyoderma (animals)
    • Food poisoning
immunology
Immunology
  • Hyperimmune serum
    • Capsular proteins
    • Surface adhesins
  • Vaccination
    • At risk population
      • ESRD
      • Dialysis patients
      • Premature infants
    • StaphVAX
      • Capsular proteins
      • Exotoxin A (Ps. Aeurginosa)