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Project Management (x470). Module 02 : Knowing What the Project Is, Part 1. Class Road Map. Session 2 Agenda. Project Genesis. Knowing WHAT The Project Is. No formal project approval (initiation) process Unrealistic expectations and assumptions

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Project Management (x470)


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    1. Project Management (x470) Module 02 : Knowing What the Project Is, Part 1

    2. Class Road Map

    3. Session 2 Agenda

    4. Project Genesis Knowing WHAT The Project Is

    5. No formal project approval (initiation) process • Unrealistic expectations and assumptions • Timing of Project Manager engagement • Degree of accuracy for project and product documents • Speed vs Accuracy vs Change Control culture • Functional Areas’ Concern: Spending precious resources’ time on projects that will be disapproved Project Approval (Initiation) Challenges

    6. Project documentation intensity / rigor. Factors: • Duration • Cost • Project risk • Priority / importance • Project classification • Small, Medium, Large • Standard, Light, Tracking • “Project” definition • Projects or investments • Project approval process • Project classification • Strategy alignment • Functional group • Others Project Approval “Monitor & Control” Aspects

    7. Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Planning Fundamentals “Failing to plan is planning to fail.” - Harold Kerzner

    8. Q3: Extreme Approach • Nothing about the project is certain • Product is accepted after some iterations or pulls plug • R & D Q4: Unlikely Situation Solution looking for a problem Unclear GOAL • Q2: Adaptive / Iterative Approach • Product development and process improvement • Production prototype development • Q1: Linear Approach • Low complexity • Well understood technology • Low risk • Completed similar project Project Life Cycle Approaches Clear Unclear Clear SOLUTION / REQUIREMENTS

    9. Linear Extreme Iterative / Adaptive UNCLEAR UNCERTAINTY & COMPLEXITY INCREASES GOAL Lifecycle Approaches Uncertainty & Complexity CLEAR UNCLEAR CLEAR SOLUTION & REQUIREMENTS

    10. Adaptive / Iterative Life Cycle Model Next Cycle?

    11. Fast Tracking • practice of overlapping phases • a.k.a concurrent engineering Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase n Fast Tracking & Rolling Wave Planning Rolling wave planning– progressive detailing of the project plan that indicates iterative and ongoing nature of planning. Near-term deliverables identified at a low-level view of detail, long-term deliverables identified at a high-level view of detail (Iterative, Adaptive, Extreme Life Cycle Approaches)

    12. Stakeholder Management Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Project Planning

    13. Objective: Identify all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully Collect Requirements • Stakeholder Register • Project Charter • Product Needs • Project Mgm’t Needs Define Scope Create WBS Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Scope Planning Steps Scope Statement Work Breakdown Structure Validate Scope Approved Scope Documents

    14. Product scope description • Characteristic of the product that the project will produce • Project life cycle approach • Deliverables • List of sub-products whose full and satisfactory delivery marks project completion. Usually includes milestone deliverables. • Product acceptance criteria • Successful completion metrics • Project exclusions • Project assumptions and constraints • Sponsor approval Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Project Scope Statement

    15. Assumptions • Factors that are considered to be true, real, or certain for planning purposes • Generally involves a degree of risk • Constraints • Factors that limit the project team’s options Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Assumptions, Constraints

    16. Draft a Scope Statement for your project (30 minutes) • Use the workbook template. Team Work

    17. Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS Knowing Whatthe Project Is:The Work Breakdown Structure Validate Scope

    18. Subdivision of major project deliverables or sub-deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until the deliverables are defined in sufficient detail to support development of project activities (planning, executing, etc..) Definition: Steps: • Identify major project deliverables • Decide if adequate cost and duration estimate can be made at this level of detail for each deliverable • Identify constituent components of the deliverable if necessary • Verify correctness of decomposition (necessity, definition, cost, duration, responsibility) Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Decomposition

    19. A deliverable oriented grouping of project components that organizes and defines the total scope of the project • Defines products, not tasks • Can be developed using a top-down or bottom-up approach • Can be hardware-related, function-related, life cycle-related or a combination Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Work Breakdown Structure Foundation of all planning!

    20. Lowest level deliverable in a WBS • Work effort guideline - 80 to 150 hours • Ownership assigned at this level • Tasks are identified under this level • Task size guideline - not to exceed 80 hours; less for high risk project Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Work Package

    21. Project Name Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase ‘n’ Deliverable 1 Product Process Deliverable 2 Knowing Whatthe Project Is:WBS Template Project Management Process Deliverable N-1 Deliverable N

    22. Scope Statement • WBS Knowing Whatthe Project Is: Scope Baseline

    23. May not be fully known at the start of a project • May come from multiple sources / groups • May come at various levels of details • Some stakeholders may not be known initially • May be “wants” and not “needs” • Wants - usually more associated with a solution • Needs - usually more associated with the underlying problem • May conflict with each other • May feed off each other • Usually requires iterations and trade-offs to finalize • May change Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Requirements Challenges

    24. Project Monitoring and Control:Project Flexibility Matrix

    25. Make sure project stakeholders have all been identified • Functional groups that will have a deliverable on the project should be represented on the project team • WBS should represent only the work needed to complete the project successfully • Validate the Scope baseline documents with the project sponsor or approving authority • Process iteration is the norm Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Scope Determination Summary

    26. Construct a life-cycle based WBS for your project • Use a Post-It-Note sheet for each deliverable • Concentrate on product deliverables but add project management process deliverable that have already been discussed in class Team Work(60 minutes)

    27. Objective: Determine the time required to meet the project needs Define the Tasks Comprising the Work Package Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Resource Sequence the Tasks or / and Deliverables Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Schedule Planning Steps Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Duration Develop the Schedule

    28. Should include planned start and finish dates for each deliverable / activity. • Tabular form • Graphical form • Bar / Gantt Chart • Milestone chart • Network diagrams Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Project Schedule

    29. Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Bar (Gantt) Charts

    30. Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Milestone Chart

    31. Objective: Identify interdependencies among tasks / deliverables Define the Tasks Comprising the Work Package Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Resource Sequence the Tasks or / and Deliverables Primary Deliverable: Project Schedule Network Diagram Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Duration Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Task Sequencing Develop the Schedule

    32. Mandatory – inherent in the nature of the work being done, a.k.a. hard logic • Discretionary – defined by the project team, a.k.a. preferred logic, preferential logic, soft logic • External – involve relationships between project activities and non-project activities Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Activity Dependency

    33. Gantt or bar charts • Milestone charts • Networks (show interdependencies) • Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) • Arrow Diagram Method (ADM) Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Scheduling Techniques

    34. Method of constructing network diagram that uses boxes (nodes) to represent activities and connects them with arrows to show dependencies • a.k.a. Activity On Node (AON) Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Precedence Diagramming Method

    35. FINISH START Eqpt Rcvd Eqpt Inspected FINISH-TO-START START Wall Preparation START-TO-START START Wallpapering Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Precedence Relationships (1 of 2) START Production Burn-In START-TO-FINISH FINISH Operational Acceptance

    36. FINISH FINISH Wall Preparation FINISH-TO-FINISH Wallpapering Network Requirements PERCENT COMPLETE Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Precedence Relationships (2 of 2) 50 % 20 % Network Design

    37. EARLY START 01/06/12 TIME DURATION 2 WORK-WEEKS EARLY FINISH 14/06/12 $250,000 ACTIVITY 4 SLACK Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Node Activity Information COST/PROFIT CENTER 2810 LATE FINISH 28/06/12 LATE START 15/06/12

    38. Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Precedence Network

    39. Objective: Estimate the type and quantities of materials, people, equipment or supplies required to complete each task or deliverable Primary Deliverable:Task / deliverable resource requirements Secondary Deliverable:Resource Breakdown Structure Define the Tasks Comprising the Work Package Sequence the Tasks or / and Deliverables Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Resource Primary Deliverable: Project Schedule Network Diagram Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Resource Estimating Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Duration Develop the Schedule

    40. People, material, equipment, supplies • Time / Skill and other trade offs • Resource requirements including timing • Resource Organizational Matrix Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Resource Considerations

    41. Objective: Determine the work period required to complete the task or deliverable with the estimated resources Primary Deliverable: Task / deliverable resource requirements Secondary Deliverable: Resource Breakdown Structure Define the Tasks Comprising the Work Package Estimate the Tasks or Deliverables Resource Sequence the Tasks or / and Deliverables Primary Deliverable: Project Schedule Network Diagram Estimate the Tasks or Deliverables Durations Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Duration Estimating Primary Deliverable: Task / deliverable duration estimate Develop the Schedule

    42. Expert judgment • Analogous estimating • Parametric estimating • Three-point estimating • Reserve time (contingency) Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Duration Estimating Techniques

    43. Use actual duration of a previous similar activity as basis to estimate duration of the future activity • Approximate (rule of thumb) estimate • Made without any detailed engineering data • A.k.a “Top-down estimating” Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Analogous Estimating

    44. Quantities to be performed for each work category defined by the engineering/design effort multiplied by the productivity unit rate • Example: No. of drawings x no. of hours per drawing Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Parametric Estimating

    45. O - Optimistic completion time estimate • M – Most likely completion time estimate • P – Pessimistic completion time estimate • Task Duration = (O+4M+P)/6 Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Three-Point Estimating

    46. Session 3 Agenda

    47. Objective: Create project schedule based on activity/deliverable sequences, resource and duration estimates, and schedule constraints Primary Deliverable: Task / deliverable resource requirements Secondary Deliverable: Resource Breakdown Structure Define the Tasks Comprising the Work Package Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Resource Sequence the Tasks or / and Deliverables Primary Deliverable: Project Schedule Network Diagram Estimate the Tasks or Deliverable Duration Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Schedule Development Primary Deliverable: Task / deliverable duration estimate Primary Deliverable: Project Schedule Baseline Secondary Deliverable: Milestone Schedule Develop the Schedule

    48. Critical Path • Longest time span through the total system of activities / events • Delay in any activity / task in the critical path delays the whole project • Improvement in total project time means reducing time for activities / events in the critical path • Slack Time (Float) - Time differential between the scheduled completion date and the required date to meet critical path. Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Critical Path and Float

    49. Determined by doing forward and backward pass calculations Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Critical Path Calculation

    50. The first predecessor task(s) have an Early Start (ES) of zero • Early Finish (EF) dates are calculated by adding the task duration (TD) to the earliest date (ES) a task can start • The EF date of the predecessor becomes the ES date for the successor • When there are multiple predecessors, ES is the larger of the EFs for the task Knowing Whatthe Project Is:Forward Pass