Housing & Interior Design Unit 1: Architectural Design and Construction September 22, 2008
Architectural Styles: Garrison • Named after early garrisons, or forts • Second story overhanging, allowed extra space without widening the foundation, always on the front of house and sometimes on the sides and rear • Overhang also created a supporting effect that prevented 2nd story floor from sagging • Symmetrical Design • Steep Roof • Small Panes of Glass
Architectural Styles: Saltbox • Type of Cape Cod • Created by adding a lean to in the back • Name comes from shape of boxed used at the time to store salt • 2- 2 ½ stories tall • Steep Gable Roof; back side of roof extended to the first floor • Large central chimney • Large windows with small panes of glass
Architectural Styles: Spanish • Resemble old mission churches • Windows and doors are arch shaped • Wrought Iron found on balconies or windows • Made of stucco or adobe • Roof covered with red tiles • Came to America in 1800’s
Architectural Styles: Gothic • High, steep roof • Exposed framing members on outside • Lots of gingerbread • Complex and ornate windows & doors • Overhanging roof with braces • People were fascinated with use of ban saws and what they could make. This was a fad that came along in 1800’s.
Architectural Styles: Italianate • Large 2-3 story home • Overhanging eaves on top story • Decorative ironwork • Heavy cornice lines along roof with brackets • Often have square or octagonal towers • First built in U.S. in 1837
Architectural Styles: Victorian • Became popular after Civil War; named after Queen Victoria of England • Lots of decorative trim called gingerbread • High porches, steep gable roofs, tall windows, high ceilings, dark stairways, long halls, and a turret, or small tower • Owners tried to outdo each other on amount of trimwork
Architectural Styles: Craftsmen • May also be called Bungalow • One story with low pitched roof • Made of brick or stone • Windows are set high so furniture can be placed beneath them • Covered porch with columns • Popular in early 1900’s
Architectural Styles: Georgian • Popular during King George I, II, III reign of England • Symmetrical and simple exterior lines • Windows with small panes of glass • Captain’s walk or widow’s walk at top of house • Tall chimney at each end of the home • Decoration under eaves. Especially to doors and windows • Style changed due to where it was built: stone in Mid Atlantic, wood in New England, brick in South
Architectural Styles: English Tudor • 2 – 2 ½ story home, second story overhanging bottom • Stonework on bottomhalf , stucco and timber on top half: HALF TIMBER • Massive chimney • High peak roof lines • Small, leaded glass windows • Bedrooms on second floor • Protruding second story supported by wooden brackets
Architectural Styles: Art Deco • Flat roof, metal framed windows • Distinctive door decorations • Became popular in 1920-1930’s due to Hollywood. • Curved lines, glass block walls • Boatlike appearance • Rectangular shape
Architectural Styles: Federal • Popular after American Revolution • Boxlike shape, 2 stories high • Symmetrical, flat roof surrounded by a balustrade: fence like part on roofline • Small portico on front that was supported by columns • Pediments, found over porticos. Segmental or triangular pieces used as decoration
Architectural Styles: Four Square or Prairie • Prairie made popular by Frank Lloyd Wright. Designed them to accommodate changes taking place in families • Prairies not built in boxlike rooms, interiors flowed together by using porches, large windows, and terraces. • Prairies blended well with their surroundings • Made out of natural stone and other materials • Four Square homes 2 – 2 ½ stories, boxlike • Hip roof with a one story veranda ( porch) • Faced the street and had hipped dormer in front • Symmetrical, plain porch columns, little decoration • One of the most popular styles in early 1900’s
Architectural Styles: French Manor • Made of stone or brick, steep roof line • 1- 2 ½ stories • Asymmetrical shape, large chimneys • Some have half timbering • Large homes • Curved doorways and entrances in middle of home. Some may have central turret ( tower) for entrance.
Building Materials: FOUNDATIONFOOTINGS Very bottom of the foundation is the footing. 1. Usually made from concrete and reinforced with steel rods 2. Must be proper width and thickness to support weight of house