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Anatomy Basics. Vertebrate Anatomy Chapter 1. Terms. Anatomy study of the the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship to one another. Physiology Study of how the body and its parts work or function. Levels of Structural Organization. Atoms Cells Tissues

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anatomy basics

Anatomy Basics

Vertebrate Anatomy

Chapter 1

terms
Terms
  • Anatomy
    • study of the the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship to one another.
  • Physiology
    • Study of how the body and its parts work or function.
levels of structural organization
Levels of Structural Organization
  • Atoms
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organ
  • Organ system
  • Organism
definitions
Definitions
  • Cell
    • Smallest unit of a living thing
definitions5
Definitions
  • Tissue
    • group of similar cells that have a common function
    • 4 main types
      • Connective
      • Epithelial
      • Muscle
      • Nervous
definitions6
Definitions
  • Organ
    • Structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body
    • Examples
      • Heart
      • Brain
      • Lung
definitions7
Definitions
  • Organ System
    • A group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common function
    • Examples
      • Digestive
      • Circulatory
      • Respiratory
definitions8
Definitions
  • Organism
    • highest level of organization in a living thing
    • 11 organ systems in the human body
organ systems
Organ Systems
  • Urinary (Excretory)
  • Respiratory
  • Integumentary
  • Muscular
  • Endocrine
  • Reproductive
  • Skeletal
  • Digestive
  • Circulatory (Cardiovascular)
  • Nervous
integumentary system
Integumentary system
  • External body covering - SKIN
  • Waterproofs, cushions and protects
  • Serves in excretion and temperature regulation
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Bones, cartilages, ligaments and joints
  • Supports body
  • Provides framework for muscles to cause movement
  • Protects internal organs
muscular system
Muscular System
  • Enables the body to move
nervous system
Nervous System
  • Fast acting control system
  • Brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory organs
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • Slower-acting control system
  • Glands that produce hormones
  • Controls growth, reproduction, food use, etc.
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • 3 main parts
    • Heart
    • blood vessels
    • blood
  • Carries oxygen, nutrients, etc. to and from tissues.
lymphatic system
Lymphatic System
  • Helps return fluids leaked from the blood back to the blood vessels
  • Cleanses blood
  • Role in immunity
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Gets oxygen into the body / bloodstream
  • Removes carbon dioxide
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Tube running from mouth to anus
  • 2 jobs that work together:
    • Breaks down food
    • Absorbs nutrients for use by the body
urinary system
Urinary System
  • Removes nitrogen waste products from blood and flushes them from the body in urine
reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • Produce offspring
major life functions
Major Life functions
  • Maintaining boundaries
    • integumentary
  • Movement
    • Muscular
    • skeletal
  • Responsiveness
    • Nervous
  • Breaking down food
    • digestive
  • Metabolism (using food to provide energy)
    • Digestive; respiratory; circulatory; endocrine
  • Excretion
    • Urinary
    • digestive
  • Reproduction
    • Reproductive
    • endocrine
  • Growth
    • endocrine
survival needs
Survival Needs
  • Nutrients
  • Oxygen
  • Water
  • Body temperature
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • All these must be present in appropriate amounts
language of anatomy
Language of Anatomy
  • Anatomical Position
  • Left and right are from SPECIMEN’S point of view
regional terms anterior landmarks
Regional Terms – anterior landmarks
  • Abdominal
  • Axillary
  • Brachial
  • Carpal
  • Cervical
  • Coxal
  • Digital
  • Femoral
  • Nasal
  • Oral
  • Orbital
  • Patellar
  • Pelvic
  • Pubic
  • Sternal
  • umbilical
regional terms posterior landmarks
Regional Terms – posterior landmarks
  • Calcaneal
  • Cephalic
  • Deltoid
  • Gluteal
  • Lumbar
  • Occipital
  • Sacral
  • Scapular
  • Vertebral
directional terms
Directional Terms
  • Superior
  • Inferior
directional terms27
Directional Terms

Anterior

Posterior

directional terms28
Directional Terms
  • Medial
  • Lateral
directional terms29
Directional Terms
  • Proximal
  • Distal
directional terms30
Directional Terms
  • Superficial
  • Deep
body planes and sections
Body Planes and Sections
  • Section
  • Plane
  • Sagittal
  • Frontal ; coronal
  • Transverse
planes
Planes
  • Sagittal
    • Left/right
planes33
Planes
  • Frontal (coronal)
    • Anterior/posterior
planes34
Planes
  • Transverse
    • Inferior/superior
body cavities
Body Cavities

Body cavities – provide protection to organs

dorsal body cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity
  • Cranial Cavity
    • Contains brain
  • Spinal cavity
    • Contains spinal cord
ventral body cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
  • Contains the visceral organs
    • All structures in chest and abdomen
  • 2 divisions
    • Thoracic cavity
      • Above diaphragm
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
      • Below diaphragm
in an auto accident
In an auto accident
  • Which organs are most vulnerable?
serous membranes
Serous membranes
  • 2 membranes
    • Parietal
      • lines body cavity
    • Visceral
      • Covers organs
    • Fluid in between
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