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OUR Ecological Footprint - 2 1. Recycle; pay tax for it. 2. This week lab: Due: Homework 9: Pop. Problem Set Start: SDP-2 Read paper about project Xerox Abstract/Intro for group members + TA

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slide2

This week lab: Due: Homework 9: Pop. Problem SetStart: SDP-2 Read paper about project Xerox Abstract/Intro for group members + TA

Complete Proposal WS 1 in labTo be returned by TA: Draft 1 SDP1Following week’s lab: Due: Draft 2 SDP1

objectives
Objectives
  • Predator-prey synchronized cycles
  • How stabilize predator-prey interactions
  • Laboratory studies of spatial

heterogeneity

  • Functional / numerical responses of

predators to prey

sample exam
Sample Exam ?

Birds, especially warblers, are primary predators of the insect spruce budworm, an invading pest of boreal forests. The ability of the predators to control these prey during a huge outbreak of the budworm was monitored.

  • Warblers showed a Type II functional response to increasing prey density. Illustrate this response in Fig. A. Explain the shape of the predator’s response.

2) Warblers also show a numerical response to increasing prey density. Illustrate this response in Fig. B.

slide6
Which type of response, functional or numerical, is made by individual warblers?
  • Fig. C shows the total response of the warblers to increasing prey density. Were the predators able to control these prey? Explain.

(On all three figures, the x axis label is:

No. of insects/0.9m2 leaves

Fig. A: y axis = No. of insects/stomach

Fig B: y axis = No. nesting pairs/100 acres

Fig C: y axis = Mortality due to predators (%).

The curve in Fig. C goes sharply up at low density and slowly falls as density increases.

predator and prey populations often increase and decrease in synchronized cycles predators lag prey
Predator and prey populations often increase and decrease in synchronized cycles; predators lag prey.
slide8
Predators eat prey--->reduce prey numbers
  • Predators go hungry---> their numbers drop
  • Few prey do better--->prey numbers rise
  • Predators have more food---> their numbers

rise.

Do prey control predators or vice versa?

question what factors control the hare lynx population cycle
Question: What factors control the hare-lynx population cycle?
  • Hypothesis: Predation, food availability, or a combination of those two factors controls the cycle.
  • Null Hypothesis: They do NOT control the cycle.
  • Experimental Design??
  • Prediction: Hare populations in at least one type of manipulated plot will be higher than mean population in control plots.
  • Prediction of null H: Hare populations will be the same in all of the plots.
controls

Fence;

no lynx

Controls

Both

Extra food

for hares

slide11
What is conclusion?
  • Do predation, food, or a combination of both factors control the hare-lynx cycle?
slide13
***How can these measles cycles be explained?Who is predator and who is prey? Draw in the curve for the missing component.
how stabilize predator prey interactions with prey refuge and or immigration
How stabilize predator-prey interactions?---with prey refuge and/or immigration

No sediment

Sediment

Immigration

2 oranges dispersed randomly predators slow to find prey prey survived longer

2) Oranges dispersed randomly---> predators slow to find prey--->prey survived longer.

3) Spatial heterogeneity --->stable cycles.

slide20
Functional response: A change in rate of capture of prey by an individual predator as prey density changes.
  • Type I: Capture directly proportional

to prey density

  • Type II: Capture levels off at high prey

density (predator satiation)

  • Type III: as Type II, but is also low at low

prey density

  • 1) heterogeneous habitat---> hiding places
  • 2) lack of learned search behavior
  • 3) switching to alternative prey
slide23
***What type of functional response?Predators switch to different prey in responseto fluctuations in prey density.
slide25

Predator satiation of individual predators, then numerical response in population size of predation via population growth or immigration.

slide28

***Is there a functional response? Numerical response? What is the total response of warblers to spruce budworm abundance? Does the warbler control its prey?

objectives1
Objectives
  • Predator-prey synchronized cycles
  • How stabilize predator-prey interactions? Laboratory studies of spatial

heterogeneity

  • Functional / numerical responses of

predators to prey

objectives2
Objectives
  • Types of competition
  • Types of resources
  • Intraspecific competition and D-D regulation
  • Plants
  • Animals
sample exam1
Sample exam ?

The figure below illustrates the distribution of two species of buttercups along a transect across ridge (high land) and furrow (low valley) grassland.

  • In one sentence summarize the results.
  • Provide two alternative hypotheses (If…then) for the observed pattern.
  • Draw or describe one complete experiment that would test both hypotheses.
  • What specific results from the experiment would provide support for your hypothesis 1 above?
figure for preceding
Figure for preceding ?

Sp 1 peaks on furrow (F)

Sp 2 peaks on ridge (R )

F R F R F Distance along transcect (m)

No. of

plants

competition
Competition:
  • Use or defense of a limiting resource that reduces the availability of that resource to other individuals.
what are types of resources
***What are types of resources?
  • Plants
  • Abiotic
  • Biotic
  • Animals
  • Abiotic
  • Biotic
  • (A condition is NOT a resource.)
slide38
For sessile animals, space is an important resource.For most plants, space is not considered a resource.
consequences of competition

Consequences of competition:

Superior competitor persists at lower resource levels.

Limits resources for growth, lx, mx.

D-D regulation of births, deaths--->

4) Population growth rate slows.

types of competition
Types of competition:
  • Exploitation vs. interference
  • Intraspecific vs. interspecific
  • If interspecific, closely related vs. distantly related
slide42

Competition may occur through exploitation (indirect) of shared resources or (direct) interference(individuals defend resources actively).

exploit

interfere

predict
***Predict:
  • Is intra- or interspecific competition greater? Why?
  • Do closely or distantly related species compete more? Why?
limiting resource if resource is scarce relative to demand
Limiting Resource: If resource is scarce relative to demand.
  • Renewable resource:
  • constantly regenerated
  • e.g. prey, nutrients
  • Non-renewable resource:
  • occur in fixed amounts and can be

fully re-used

  • e.g. space, hiding places
liebig s law of the minimum populations are limited by the single resource that is most scarce
Liebig’s Law of the Minimum: Populations are limited by the single resource that is most scarce.
  • A population increases until the supply of the limiting resource is insufficient; then growth stops.
  • Applies to resources that do NOTinteract to determine population growth rate.
  • How realistic is this ‘Law’?
intraspecific competition density dependent population regulation

Intraspecific competition + Density-dependent population regulation

Negative plant responses:

Growth

Reproduction

Survival

1 density dependence in plants decreases growth size hierarchy develops

1) Density-dependence in plants decreases growth. Size hierarchy develops.

***What is the evolutionary consequence of a size hierarchy?

What is one assumption?

3 density dependence increases mortality intraspecific competition causes self thinning
3) Density-dependence increases mortality. Intraspecific competition causes “self- thinning”.

Biomass (g)

logistic growth model
Logistic growth model

Intraspecific

Competition results in

decelerating growth rate

intraspecific competition density dependent population regulation1
Intraspecific competition + density-dependent population regulation
  • Negative animal responses:
  • Growth
  • Time to sexual maturity
  • Birth rate
  • Death rate
slide56

Density-dependent regulation of time to reach sexual maturity. ***Does age or weight determine sexual maturity? Explain.

objectives3
Objectives
  • Types of competition
  • Types of resources
  • Intraspecific competition and D-D regulation
  • Plants
  • Animals