Vaccines to prevent streptococcus iniae and s agalactiae disease in tilapia oreochromis niloticus
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Vaccines to prevent Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae disease in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. P.H. Klesius, J.J. Evans, C.A. Shoemaker and D.J. Pasnik Aquatic Animal Health Research Laboratory, Auburn, AL and Chestertown, MD pklesius@ars.usda.gov. Fluorescent-Chromophore Calcein.

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Vaccines to prevent streptococcus iniae and s agalactiae disease in tilapia oreochromis niloticus

Vaccines to prevent Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae disease in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

P.H. Klesius, J.J. Evans, C.A. Shoemaker

and D.J. Pasnik

Aquatic Animal Health Research Laboratory, Auburn, AL and Chestertown, MD

pklesius@ars.usda.gov


Fluorescent chromophore calcein

Fluorescent-Chromophore Calcein

A calcein solution (500 mg/l) was used to non-invasively mark sham-vaccinated tilapia (control) by bath immersion for 4 h.

Calcein stains (arrows) the calcified skeletal structures of the head and fins.


Fluorescent chromophore calcein1

Fluorescent-Chromophore Calcein

Dead fish (twice daily) were examined for fluorescent staining using a hand-held portable UV lamp set at 365 nm.


Materials and methods

Materials and Methods

Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 15±2 g.

Aquarium- Flow-through 57 l supplied with 0.5 l water/h.

Streptococcus iniae ARS #60.

Calcein- Sigma Chemical Co, 500 mg/l dechloridated water, dissolved oxygen 3.5±0.56 mg/l, 26.1±0.63°C and pH 7.9±0.05.

Vaccine- S. iniae modified killed (Klesius et al. 1999 BEAFP 19:39-41), by IP injection and bath immersion with diluted vaccine.

Vaccine efficacy- % cumulative mortality and Relative Percent Survival (RPS).


Vaccination and challenge model
Vaccination and challenge model

20 cohabited tilapia in a aquarium for 30 d. or more

10 Sham-vaccinated calcein marked

10 Vaccinated non-marked


Immersion or ip challenged with virulent s iniae and a rps at 15 d pc
Immersion or IP challenged with virulent S. iniae and a RPS at 15 d PC.

RPS = (1/8 -1) x 100 = 87.5


Experimental design

Experimental Design

30 d cohabited and then challenged with by IP injection at doses of S. iniae at 3.5 × 107 , 6.8 × 107 , 10.0 × 107 , or 15.0 × 107 CFU/fish. % cumulative mortality and RPS calculated at 15 PC.



P h klesius j j evans c a shoemaker and d j pasnik

RPS*

*15 d PC


P h klesius j j evans c a shoemaker and d j pasnik

Table 1. Efficacy of formalin-killed Streptococcus iniae cells, extracellular product (ECP) and complete vaccine (S. iniae cells + ECP) diluted 1:500 administrated by bath immersion for 10 sec to Nile tilapia (15 g) and followed by experimental challenge infection with S. iniae at 14 d post-vaccination.

Relative percent survival at 14 d post-challenge with 1 X 107 CFU/fish of S. iniae


P h klesius j j evans c a shoemaker and d j pasnik

Table 2. Efficacy of Streptococcus vaccine (Cells + ECP) dilutions administrated by bath immersion for 10 and 20 sec to Nile tilapia (15 g) and followed by experimental challenge infection with S. iniae at 14 d post-vaccination.

Relative percent survival at 14 d post-challenge with 1 X 107 CFU/fish of S. iniae


P h klesius j j evans c a shoemaker and d j pasnik

Table 3. Mean specific antibody titers in Nile tilapia (15 g) administrated the 1:100 and 1:500 dilutions of Streptococcus vaccine (Cells + ECP) dilutions by bath immersion for 20 sec before and after experimental challenge infection with S. iniae at 30 d post-vaccination.

Relative percent survival at 14 d post-challenge with 1 X 107 CFU/fish of S. iniae


P h klesius j j evans c a shoemaker and d j pasnik

Table 4. Efficacy of g) administrated the 1:100 and 1:500 dilutions of Streptococcus vaccine (Cells + ECP) diluted 1:500 administrated by bath immersion for 20 sec to Nile tilapia and followed by experimental challenge infection with S. iniae at 14 d post-vaccination.

Relative percent survival at 14 d post-challenge with 1 X 107 CFU/fish of S. iniae


Conclusions
Conclusions g) administrated the 1:100 and 1:500 dilutions of

  • Solubility of calcein may vary within

    different sources of water, may require buffering.

  • Calcein has been demonstrated to be effective in

    marking many species of fish at different life

    stages.

  • Diluted S. iniae vaccine protection against S. iniae

    infection in 0.5 and large weight tilapia except for 1.0-3.0 g weights.

  • Specific serum antibody response to vaccination appears to provide protection.

  • Multi-immersion vaccination at different tilapia weights appears to a successful strategy to prevent S. iniae infection in tilapia.


References
References g) administrated the 1:100 and 1:500 dilutions of

Evans et al. 2006. Efficacy of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B) vaccine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by intraperitoneal and bath immersion administration. Vaccines 22: 3769-3773.

Klesius et al. 1999. Efficacy of a killed Streptococcus iniae vaccine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) . Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists 19:1-3.

Klesius et al. 2006. A vaccination and challenge model using calcein marked fish. Fish & Shellfish Immunol. 20:20-28.

Shoemaker et al. 2006. Efficacy of Streptococcus iniae modified bacterin delivered using Oralject technology in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niliticus) Aquaculture 255:151-156.