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the consequences of WW2. Human cost. 40 millions dead in Europe Two-third were civilians One-fifith of Poland’s population died 20 million people displaced. Economic cost. WW1 fighting took place mostly on the Western Front while during WW2 entire Europe was involved.

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human cost
Human cost
  • 40 millions dead in Europe
  • Two-third were civilians
  • One-fifith of Poland’s population died
  • 20 million people displaced
economic cost
Economic cost
  • WW1 fighting took place mostly on the Western Front while during WW2 entire Europe was involved.
  • Aerial bombing destroyed many cities
  • Transport and communication disrupted
  • Industry destroyed
  • Farmland ruined
  • Food production fell to half
  • 150 million people dependent on relief food distribution
  • Britain was bankrupted
  • Soviet economy badly effected-25 millions homeless
political consequences
Political consequences
  • Poland saw its border shifted westwards- lost 179,000 sq.km in the east and gained 104,000 sq.km from German territories
  • Yalta Conference- decided Poland’s boundaries
  • Germany to be dicided into four zones
  • Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia one party regime under Stalin’s control.
effects of war on international relations
Effects of war on international relations
  • Change in the balance of power.
  • USSR and USA emerged as super powers
reasons military
Reasonsmilitary
  • USA had acquired the largest air force in the world, 12 million men in the armed forces, more naval vessels and the atomic bomb
  • USSR had acquired the largest land army in the world to defeat Germany
  • France and Britain’s inability to defeat Germany placed them second in rank
  • USSR lacked strong military neighbours thus making it a regional power
reasons economic
Reasonseconomic
  • USA’s economy was strengthened by the war. It was able to out-produce all the other powers
  • USA was committed to more ‘open’ trade.
  • Small Eastern European countries needed support of a stronger neighbour which was provided by USSR
impact of the superpowers
Impact of the superpowers
  • The map of europe after 1945 was determined by the growing conflict between USSR and USA with a clear dicvide between Eastern and Western Europe
  • USA- end of isolationism, beginning of a dominant role in world affairs
  • Cold War
eastern europe
Eastern Europe
  • 1944-48 Stalin established control over Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, romania and Poland which involved
  • i. establishment of one-party rule
  • ii. Nationalization of private enterprise
  • Iii. Five- Year Plans- encouraged collective farming
  • Each satellite state had to produce what USSR needed- eg Poland produced coal
slide10

The economic and political system was backed by:

  • Social and ideological controls eg. Cominform, secret police
  • Censorship of all media
  • Suppression of religious freedom
  • Military presence of soviet troops
  • Political purges
western europe
Western Europe
  • Followed democracy
  • Commitment by USA- the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid
  • Establishment of NATO
impact on asia
Impact on asia
  • China lost 12 million people
  • Japan lost 2 million people
japan
Japan
  • Eliminated as amajor power
  • Occupied by the Americans under General Douglas macArthur
  • Japan was made a democracy
  • Military and secret police forces were dissolved
  • The emperor remained to maintain political stability
the treaty of san francisco
The treaty of san francisco
  • Signed in 1951- japan to
  • 1. renounce all claims to Taiwan, Sakhalin and the Kuriles
  • 2. hand over the Pacific Island of Micronesia to UN
  • 3. hand over the Ryuku and Bonin Islands to USA
  • 4. accepted the judgements of the international military Tribunal for the Far East
  • 4. Guidelines for reparation and compensation to prisoners of war, renounced future military aggression, nullified prior treaties
slide15

A separate Treaty between Japan and USA-

  • USA promised to defend Japan until it could look after its own defense which meant that it had military bases in Japan
china
china
  • Fighting continued between the nationalist forces of Jiang jieshi and the communist forces of Mao Zedong
  • Conflict led to the victory of Mao in 1949 and the establishment of a communist China
decolonisation the decline of european influence in asia
Decolonisation: the decline of european influence in asia
  • Weakness of Britain and France found it increasingly difficult to hold on to their empires in Asia and Africa
  • Nationalist Movements grew
  • USA and the UN condemned imperialism
  • Indonesia got independence from Dutch, Vietnam from the French, India, Burma and Ceylon from the british
  • USA and USSR sought to increase their sphere of influence in this area- Cold War
other effects
Other effects
  • War Tribunals established
  • The united nations
  • The Arms Race
assignment
Assignment
  • What was the impact of World War II on the following:
  • The popularity and spread of communism?
  • The defeated powers- Germany and Japan?
  • What was the impact of WWI and WWII on the roles and status of women?