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American Pageant. Chapter 10 “Launching the New Ship of State”. I. Growing Pains. Growing Population -4 million in 1790 -doubling every 25 years -90% rural -growing cities -5% lived east of Appalachia. II. Washington for President. 1789-Washington unanimously elected President

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american pageant

American Pageant

Chapter 10

“Launching the New Ship of State”

i growing pains
I. Growing Pains
  • Growing Population

-4 million in 1790

-doubling every 25 years

-90% rural

-growing cities

-5% lived east of Appalachia

ii washington for president
II. Washington for President
  • 1789-Washington unanimously elected President
  • Based on character-not politics
  • Temporary capital-NYC

D) 3 Cabinet members

-Sec. of State—Thomas Jefferson

-Sec. of Treasury-Alexander Hamilton

-Sec. of War-Henry Knox

iii the bill of rights
III. The Bill of Rights
  • States adopted Constitution-Bill of Rights would be added
  • James Madison-led it through Congress
  • Include individual liberties, rights in judicial system and protection of states’ rights
  • Judiciary Act of 1789-created Supreme Court, federal and circuit courts, and office of attorney general
iii hamilton receives the corpse of public credit
III. Hamilton Receives the Corpse of Public Credit
  • Alexander Hamilton

-British West Indies (from)

-Loved country (not countrymen)

-Put hands in affairs of other depts.

-Attract state financiers-trickle down effect

B) Objectives

-improve national credit

-Funding at par-federal gov’t would pay debts at face value

-assumption-Congress would pay for debts of the states (war for independence)

-MA- ecstatic (large debt)

-VA-not happy (obliged-gained DC)

iv customs duties and excise taxes
IV. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes
  • Raise $ to pay for $75 million debt
  • Tariff-8% on imported goods (Hamilton-Ind. Rev will come!)
  • Excise Tax-7 cents on a gallon of whiskey
v hamilton battles jefferson for a bank
V. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank
  • Hamilton-proposed a national bank

-gov’t would be major stockholder

-federal surpluses-deposited

-funds would stimulate business

-print paper money

B) Jefferson-NO!!

-no authority in Constitution (state’s rights)

-Congress cannot charter banks


C) Hamilton-YES!

-necessary and proper to overpower states

D) Bank of the United States

-1791-chartered for 20 years

-Philadelphia-$10 capital-1/5 by fed. Gov.

-many purchased stock

vi mutinous moonshiners in pennsylvania
VI. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania
  • Whiskey Rebellion

-pioneers-excise tax against frivolous luxury

-whiskey poles- “liberty and no excise”

-tarred and feathered revenue officers

B) Gov’t Reaction

-13,000 troops went in

-put down rebellion

-showed strength of federal gov’t

vii emergence of political parties
VII. Emergence of Political Parties
  • Hamilton (Federalists)

-financial success and gov’t power

-infringed on states’ rights

B) Jefferson and Madison (Democrat-Republicans)

-against central issues of Hamilton

C) Debut-no parties (national unity)-no long term parties envisioned

viii the impact of the french revolution
VIII. The Impact of the French Revolution
  • 1789-French rose up against Monarchy-proclaimed a republic! (Second Phase of American Revolution?)

B) Federalists-fearing change-strong gov’t collapsed?

C) Jeffersonians- “blood drinking cannibals” in the Reign of Terror—knock against federalists

D) Major European War-What to do?

ix washington s neutrality proclamation
IX. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
  • Jeffersonians-align with France-alliance of 1778
  • Federalists-remain neutral
  • Neutrality Proclamation of 1793

-proclaimed neutrality-led to isolationist policy

-Washington-feeble army, disunited country, weak economy…do not need war

D) Genêt-French representative-thought US was fully supporting France-tried to get military action-was replaced

x embroilments with britain
X. Embroilments with Britain
  • Britain-running posts on American soil in frontier (against treaty of 1783)

-selling guns to Miami tribes for fur

-hoping to use natives to hold back Americans

B) Little Turtle-killed hundreds of soldiers

C) 1794-Battle of Fallen Timbers-General Wayne crushed Miami tribes-British refused to shelter them

D) Treaty of Greenville-tribes gave up land, received $20,000 and $9k a year, right to hunt on lands

E) British-struck 300 ships in West Indies-used impressment, etc..

-Jeffersonian-declare war (bad economic move)

xi jay s treaty and washington s farewell
XI. Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell
  • John Jay-sent to GB to settle disputes

-Hamilton warned GB of bargaining

B) Jay’s Treaty

-GB-leave posts, stop supplying Indians with guns, and pay for ships

-USA-pay for merchant ships during war and pay for war debt still owed



C) Pinckney’s Treaty-Spain-granted Americans navigation of Mississippi, warehouse rights in New Orleans and large disputed territory

D) Washington’s Farewell Address

-warned of “permanent alliances”

E) Washington’s legacy

-2 term precedent

-fiscal stability

-stay clear of foreign wars

-stay clear of political parties

xii john adams becomes president
XII. John Adams Becomes President
  • 1796 Election

John Adams-VP of Washington

Thomas Jefferson-Democrat-Republicans

Federalist-”fire eating salamanders”-TJ

B) John Adams-71 to 68 vote

TJ-Vice President (repelled by 12th amend)

C) Adams

-stern principles, stubborn devotion

-no appeal; learned

-hated by Hamilton (resigned in 1795)

-quarrel with France

xiii unofficial fighting with france
XIII. Unofficial Fighting with France
  • France-mad at Jay Treaty (against alliance)

-attacked merchant ships in West Indies

B) Adams-Sent John Marshall and 2 other diplomats to France

-Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-charge $250,000 for a meeting with “X, Y, and Z”

C) XYZ Affair

-refused to pay

-national heroes

D) Navy Department expanded and Marines reestablished

-attacked French ships

xiv adams puts patriotism above party
XIV. Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party
  • Talleyrand-does not need a new enemy-accept diplomat gracefully
  • Adams-will send (outraged Hamilton)
  • Napoleon rose to power

D) Convention of 1800

-alliance was over

-America pay its damage of merchant ships

xv the federalist witch hunt
XV. The Federalist Witch Hunt
  • Anti-French frenzy-pass laws!

B) Alien Laws-targeted undesirable immigrants

-deport foreigners in peace; deport or imprison in war

-raised citizenship from 5 to 14 years

C) Sedition Act

-illegal to impede gov’t or defame officials

-shut Jeffersonian mouths and presses

-Congressional elections of 98-99, Federalist sweep

xvi the virginia madison and kentucky jefferson resolutions
XVI. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions
  • Virginia and Kentucky resolutions

-stated Federal gov’t overstepped constitution

-most states did not fall into line

-more or less campaign documents

-South would use them for secession

xvii federalist versus democratic republicans
XVII. Federalist versus Democratic-Republicans
  • Federalists

-those who own, should govern

-strong central gov’t with power

-support private enterprise, not interfere

-tariffs to protect industry

-restrictions on speech and press

-expand for commercial use

-Pro Britain

-Alexander Hamilton


B) Democratic-Republicans

-rule by masses

-weak central gov’t

-pro states’ rights

-state banks

-support all people including poor

-pro France

-Thomas Jefferson