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Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers

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Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers

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  1. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)for Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Growers New England Extension Food Safety Partnership Project funded by USDA CSREES – Project Number 2000-05389 Manure

  2. Manure Handling and Field Application

  3. Why be Concerned About Manure? • Livestock manure can be a valuable source of nutrients, but it also can be a source of human pathogens if not managed correctly • Some pathogens, such as L. monocytogenes and E. coli sp., may survive and grow in the soil • Keep manure off produce!

  4. Primary Nutrients In Animal Manures

  5. MircoNutrients In Animal Manure

  6. Composting Manure for Safety:What can you do? • Properly and thoroughly compost manure • Incorporate manure into soil prior to planting • Remember to optimize temperature, turning, and time to produce high quality, stable compost. • High temperatures achieved by well-managed, aerobic compost can kill most harmful pathogens • If manure is not composted, age the manure to be applied to produce fields for at least six months prior to application

  7. Using Manure That is Not Composted: What can you do?

  8. Manure 2. Plan/Choose: Time application properly and choose crops wisely 1. Manage compost piles to achieve high temperatures to kill potential pathogens. Wes Kline, NJ Agricultural Experiment Station 3. Know the source.

  9.  Plan Before Planting • Consider the source, storage, and type of manure being used on the farm • Store manure as far away as practical from areas where fresh produce is grown and handled • Where possible, erect physical barriers or wind barriers to prevent runoff and wind drift of manure • Store manure slurry for at least 60 days in the summer and 90 days in the winter before applying to fields

  10.  Choose Appropriate Crops • Apply manure to grain or forage crop • Apply manure to perennial crops in the planting year only as the long period between application and harvest will reduce the risks • Avoid growing root and leafy crops in the year that manure is applied to a field • NO side/top-dressing of plants are important steps toward reducing the risk of microbial contamination

  11.  Time Manure Application Carefully • It is recommended that manure is applied late summer/early fall no later than December 10-15 • Apply manure in the fall or at the end of the season to all planned vegetable ground or fruit acreage, preferable when soils are warm, unsaturated, and cover-cropped • If applying manure in the spring (or the start of a season), spread the manure two weeks before planting, preferable to grain or forage crops • DO NOT harvest vegetables or fruits until 120 days after manure application

  12.  Incorporate Manure Into The Soil • Incorporate manure immediately after application • If it is necessary to apply manure or slurry to vegetable or fruit ground, incorporate it at least two weeks prior to planting and observe the suggested 120-day pre-harvest interval • If the 120-day waiting period is not feasible, such as for short season crops like lettuce or leafy greens, apply only properly composted manure

  13. Food Safety Partnership • New England Cooperative Extension Food Safety Specialists From: • University of Connecticut • University of Maine • University of Massachusetts • University of New Hampshire • University of Rhode Island • University of Vermont • Other Representatives: • State Agriculture Divisions/Departments • USDA Agencies (Farm Service Agency, ASCS, NRCS) • Farm Bureau • Growers Associations • Cooperative Extension Agricultural Specialists/Agents