europe expands overseas imperialism n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 19 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 19

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 67
Download Presentation

Chapter 19 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

knut
111 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 19

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Europe Expands Overseas “Imperialism” Chapter 19

  2. What is imperialism? • The extension of power by one country over another country.

  3. Why might a country want to exercise power over another?

  4. Was imperialism good or bad? • For the countries with power? • For the countries being dominated?

  5. Extension of European Culture

  6. Emigrant – departure • Immigrant – arrival

  7. U.S. expands westward • Louisiana Purchase 1803 • 800,000 square miles west of the Miss. River. • Almost doubled the size of the U.S.

  8. U.S. expands westward • Southwestern U.S. • Mexican-American War 1846-1848 • Gold in California 1849 • Alaska purchased 1867 • Hawaii, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines (conquest)

  9. Another kind of expansion • U.S. expanded in number of people with suffrage • Universal manhood suffrage

  10. Sectional Differences • North: urban, industrial, favored high tariffs, little slavery, desire to develop the west to open more markets • South: rural, agrarian, opposed to high tariffs, slavery, desire for west to allow slavery to balance representation in Congress • Period of compromise (1820-1850)

  11. Industrial Expansion • Causes of rapid industrial expansion (North) • Hardworking American spirit • Abundance of raw materials • New inventions • Expansion of railroads • Large labor force (immigrants)

  12. Isolation in Foreign Affairs • Monroe Doctrine: Once the Latin American nations had become independent from their “mother countries,” the European powers were not to be allowed to “recolonize” in the western hemisphere.

  13. Isolation to Imperialism (U.S.) • Trade agreements • Spanish-American War • Cuban independence • Puerto Rico – a U.S. possession • The Philippines – a U.S. possession until 1948.

  14. Isolation to Imperialism (U.S.) • Intervention in Dominican Republic • Intervention in Haiti • Intervention in Columbia/Panama • Roosevelt Corollary: U.S. claims the right to intervene in Latin American countries to “help” them get their affairs in order.

  15. British Colonies granted independence • Late 19th Century: “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”

  16. British Colonies granted independence • Canada • Seven Years’ War – British took French territory • Quebec Act 1774 – British granted French Canadians the right to keep their language, law, customs, and Roman Catholic religion. • British North America Act 1867 – created a Canadian federation of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.

  17. British Colonies granted independence • Australia • Captain James Cook • Penal colony • Cheap land, gold, wool industry • 1901 Commonwealth of Australia formed

  18. British Colonies granted independence • New Zealand • Escaped convicts from penal colonies in Australia • Deserters from naval and merchant vessels • Maoris – Native New Zealanders • 1907 New Zealand was allowed to govern itself.

  19. British Colonies granted independence • South Africa • Dutch colonists “Boers” • South Africa taken by Britain during the Napoleonic Wars • Boers flee and form Transvaal & Orange Free State • Diamonds • Boer War (1899-1902): Boers v. British • Unite in 1910 as part of British empire

  20. Latin American independence • Latin America • 8 million square miles • Larger than U.S. & Canada combined • Homes of major Amerindian civilizations • Spanish & Portuguese dominated

  21. Latin American independence • Why is it called “Latin” America?

  22. Latin American independence • Tightly controlled by rulers appointed by the kings of Spain & Portugal • Peninsulares – Spaniards born and raised in Spain (arrogant rulers) • Criollos – Spaniards born in the New World (resentment) • Mestizos – Those of mixed Spanish/Indian blood (abused) • Blacks – Of African ancestry (abused)

  23. Latin American independence • Triggers for revolt • Discontent with Spain & Portugal (political/economic) • Influence of Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau • Example of North American independence • Napoleonic Wars in Europe

  24. Latin American independence • Simon Bolivar – “The Liberator” led the freedom movement in Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Ecuador • Jose de San Martin – helped liberate Chile and Peru with help of Argentina • Dom Pedro - Brazil

  25. Pattern of independence in Latin America • Gain independence • Leaders fight among themselves • Military leaders (caudillos) take power • Dictatorship

  26. Obstacles to self-government in Latin America • Political Instability – little experience with self-rule • Monopoly of land and wealth by a few – no strong middle class • Power influence of Roman Catholic Church – land and education, politics • Racial disunity – whites, blacks, Indians, mixed ancestry

  27. Obstacles to self-government in Latin America • Squabbling among countries – border wars • Economic weakness – agricultural economies, little industry • European & U.S. interference in Latin American affairs – Mexico, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Colombia, etc.

  28. Extension of European Power

  29. Question: In the 16th and 17th centuries, why did countries seek to gain colonies? • Answer: Mercantilist nations wanted colonies from which to gain natural resources and new markets so they could produce more products and sell them for gold.

  30. What is imperialism? • The extension of power by one country over another country.

  31. Imperialism led to fierce rivalries which would eventually lead to World War I.

  32. Four Reasons for Imperialism • 1. Expansion of industrialism -demand for raw materials & new markets • 2. Intense nationalism (1870-1914) • 3. Humanitarianism – “share the fruit of western culture,” arrogant • 4. Spread of Christian missions

  33. Imperialism in Asia

  34. India • Seven Years’ War – India sided with France, British win. • British East India Company rules & dominates India. • Sepoy Mutiny – Native Indian troops working for the British East India Company revolt 1857. • British government takes control of Indian affairs.

  35. India • British East India Company – not friendly toward missionaries • William Carey – “Father of Modern Missions” • The British East India Company didn’t want the Indians to get ideas about equality and liberty from the Christian teachings, so they tried to exclude them.

  36. William Carey – Father of Modern Missions • Expect great things from God.Attempt great things for God.

  37. Some Benefits of British Colonialism in India • Improved sanitation & medical care • Built roads & railroads • Built factories • Brought western thought & culture • As a result, Indians began to desire self-government. 

  38. Imperialism in China • Manchu Dynasty – closed China (except Canton) to foreigners • Britain wanted to trade. • Opium Wars – British sell opium to China in exchange for tea and silks; China resists. • Treaty of Nanking 1842 – British take Hong Kong and open some Chinese ports to trade.

  39. Imperialism in China • Extraterritoriality – Westerners who break Chinese law are tried in western courts, not Chinese. • The proud and independent Chinese are NOT happy.

  40. Imperialism in China • Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 - Japan takes land from China. • Boxer Rebellion – Chinese seek to rid themselves of western influences. • Attack missionaries, diplomats, businessmen.

  41. Imperialism in China • Hudson Taylor • China Inland Mission • Adopt Chinese culture • Speak Chinese • Dress Chinese • Reach Chinese with the gospel

  42. Imperialism in Japan • Commodore Matthew Perry, 1853 • Demands Japan open its ports under threat of assault by U.S. warships. • Gives the Japanese 6 months to respond to his ultimatum. Tokugawa Shogun

  43. Treaty of Kanagawa • First treaty Japan ever signed with a Western nation. • Meiji Period (1868-1912) Japan westernized & industrializes. • Western constitution

  44. Japan expands • Japan began to compete with western nations for territory & influence in Asia. • War with China 1894-1895 • War with Russia 1905-1905

  45. Imperialism in SE Asia • Independent: Siam (Thailand) • Dutch: DEI (Indonesia) • France: Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) • British: Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Burma • (See map page 506)

  46. Imperialism in Africa

  47. What were the three major African civilizations before 1500? • Mali • Songhai • Ghana

  48. Imperialism in Africa • From trading partners to subjects • A mixture of exploitation and humanitarian impulse • Slave trade • Christian missions