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Key food security policy issues. SARPN Conference: Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes . Overview. The analysis of the 2001-03 crisis The current food security situation and programmatic response Contemporary food security policy discussions

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key food security policy issues

Key food security policy issues

SARPN Conference:

Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes

overview
Overview
  • The analysis of the 2001-03 crisis
  • The current food security situation and programmatic response
  • Contemporary food security policy discussions
  • Challenges and opportunities for CSOs in regional policy

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

the analysis of the 2001 03 crisis
The analysis of the 2001-03 crisis
  • Several retrospective studies of the 2001-03 crisis (SADC/ FANRPAN, ODI, Wiggins, Drimie, UK-IDC)
  • Regional crop production loses of 22% in 2001/02 and 36% in 2002/03 compared to 66% in 1991/92
  • Not a ‘traditional’ drought induced food crisis

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

the analysis of the 2001 03 crisis4
The analysis of the 2001-03 crisis
  • Livelihoods crisis with its’ roots in process on-going since the 1970’s.
  • Outcome has been growing poverty, increased human vulnerability and food insecurity

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

the analysis of the 2001 03 crisis5
The analysis of the 2001-03 crisis
  • ‘Underlying causes’ understood to include:
    • Contraction of formal employment in the mines and industry
    • Withdrawal of state support to agriculture in developing Countries …
    • … while continuing agricultural subsidies in developed nations
    • Removal of price controls and failure of markets
    • Population pressure and soil degradation
    • Country related Governance factors
    • HIV-AIDS

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

the analysis of the 2001 03 crisis6
The analysis of the 2001-03 crisis

Adapted from Wiggins (2005)

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

current food security situation
Current food security situation
  • Current overviews of national and regional food insecurity are primarily driven by the CFSM and VAC processes
  • Crop production region wide falls: Zimbabwe (down 45% on last year), Malawi (36% on 5 year avg.), Zambia (12% on 10 year avg.) and southern Mozambique (48% down in southern Provinces)
  • Zimbabwe also affected by continuing macro-economic crisis, hyper-inflation and the urban clean-up campaign
  • Acute food insecurity evident in (parts of) Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Swaziland and Lesotho

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

current food security situation8
Current food security situation

Source: FEWS NET September 2005

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

current food security situation9
Current food security situation
  • In terms of assessed needs still lower than 2001-03 (VACs estimated that 14,400,000 people in six countries would require 1,000,000 MT of cereals in September 2002)
  • Limited nutritional data indicates wasting rates well below levels in Sudan, Ethiopia or Somalia
  • Regional maize availability and prices are relatively good (record SA crop) and being imported by Zimbabwe and Malawi
  • The potential for a rapid deterioration in conditions provides a major justification for intervention

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

current food security situation10
Current food security situation
  • The VACs are struggling to disentangle the overlapping crises in their analyses
  • The recommendations continue to be dominated by food aid (equivalents) and agricultural inputs
  • Response being organized through Flash Appeals (Malawi, Zimbabwe) and an expansion of existing instruments
  • Resources are flowing relatively slowly
    • Overall WFP appealing for $621m and received $246m
    • Malawi Flash Appeal 32% funded

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

current food security situation11
Current food security situation
  • SADC/WFP RVAC meeting in July agreed on the overall magnitude of needs, but called for further analysis on appropriate responses.
  • Unanimous call to broaden response from short-term emergency responses (food aid specifically) towards longer-term development interventions.
  • Call to work under frameworks of:
    • SADC RISP / Dar declaration
    • Inter-Agency Regional Humanitarian Strategic Framework
  • Little evidence of expanded development funding
  • Collective response has not addressed underlying causes – crisis as a recurring feature

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

contemporary policy debates short term response
Contemporary policy debatesShort-term response
  • Food Aid
    • Concern over trade and production disincentives
    • Agenda for change includes untying food aid, end to monetization, increased local purchase and improved targeting
    • Strong technical arguments for change
    • How to generate political support for change?
  • Safety nets
    • Ensuring access to the chronically poor, prevent transiently food insecure falling into poverty and provide opportunities for households to escape from poverty
    • Cash transfers receiving particular scrutiny
    • How can this be done most effectively? How much will they cost? How will they be sustained?

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

contemporary policy debates short term response13
Contemporary policy debatesShort-term response
  • Strategic grain reserves
    • Dual purpose of emergency buffer stocks and price stabilization
    • Expensive to maintain a large physical stock
    • What are the alternatives to a physical reserve?
    • Possibilities: SAFEX futures (Malawi), weather based insurance (Ethiopia) and expanding private warehousing (warehouse receipts systems)
  • Early warning systems
    • Maintaining a strong capacity (‘Failures’ in Malawi and Niger)
    • Would more competition help? Should CSOs maintain an independent voice?
    • Linking livelihoods analysis to policies and programs that enhance welfare

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

contemporary policy debates longer term response
Contemporary policy debatesLonger-term response
  • Agricultural development
    • Central to NEPAD and SADC strategies
    • Objectives of improved availability, lower market prices and increased smallholder incomes
    • How to bring livelihoods approaches to scale efficiently?
    • Balancing resources to growth and welfare objectives.
  • HIV-AIDS
    • Management of HIV-AIDS as a health problem
    • Maintaining agricultural productivity
    • Mitigating the impact of HIV-AIDS through safety nets
    • Nutrition, ARVs and HIV-AIDS linkages

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

contemporary policy debates longer term response15
Contemporary policy debatesLonger-term response
  • Trade liberalization
    • Consensus on liberalization (‘maize without border’)
    • Question on how to maximize benefits while mitigating negative impacts
    • Trade policy work on removing constraints (NTBs, infrastructure, information, govt behaviour)
    • What would be the impacts of removal of EU/US ag. subsidies on African consumers?
  • Disaster risk reduction
    • Mainstream into development programming (Hyogo framework, NEPAD)
    • Policy and legislative frameworks are being put in place
    • Methodologies to implement these policies?

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

challenges and opportunities
Challenges and opportunities
  • CSOs need to stay ‘relevant’ amidst a changing humanitarian aid architecture
    • Donor channelling funds through SWAPs and DBS
    • UN restructuring to support national capacity building (Triple Threat)
  • CSO experience, grounded in field level programs, key. Emphasize continuous learning
  • Contribute to food security policy formulation, implementation and review

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

challenges and opportunities17

MONITORING

& IMPACT ASSESSMENT

(Policy data)

ANALYSIS OF POLICY OPTIONS

Policy

Change Cycle

POLICY DIALOGUE/ REVIEW

POLICY IMPLEMENTATION

Challenges and opportunities

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

challenges and opportunities18
Challenges and opportunities
  • Excellent examples of effective CSO contribution to policy at a national level
  • What is best addressed at the regional level? (co-variant, cross border and regional problems)
  • Refine agenda with a lens of:
    • Areas of expertise and practice – greatest traction
    • Potential for collective action

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005

challenges and opportunities19
Challenges and opportunities
  • Provide advocacy around two key messages:
    • Livelihoods crisis, not a food crisis
    • Balancing policy attention to economic growth and social transfers
  • In addition to the current technical agenda two possible themes to be brought into the debate:
    • Nutrition, health and education
    • Climate change
  • Use a regional voice to influence
    • Governments
    • Donors – allocation of ‘developmental resources’

SARPN Conference on Enhancing Civil Society Participation in SADC Food Security Processes: 14th – 15th November, 2005