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How satisfied are students with their course and should we care?. Stress and models of stress. Stress can be the result of ‘too much or too little arousal resulting in harm to mind and body’ (Schafer 1992, p. 14). Response model of Stress (Cannon, 1932, Seyle , 1974)

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stress and models of stress
Stress and models of stress
  • Stress can be the result of ‘too much or too little arousal resulting in harm to mind and body’ (Schafer 1992, p. 14).
  • Response model of Stress (Cannon, 1932, Seyle, 1974)
  • Stimulus model (e.g. Holmes and Rahe, 1967)

Dr C Gibbons

the transactional model of stress lazarus and folkman 1984

Primary

Appraisal

Benign, threat or challenge?

Secondary

appraisal

Adaptive coping

Maladaptive

coping

Demands

Outcomes:

satisfaction

Perform.

Health

Affective

outcomes:

Distress

Eustress

The Transactional model of stress (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984)

Dr C Gibbons

the transactional model of stress lazarus and folkman 19841

Primary

Appraisal

Benign, threat or challenge?

Secondary

appraisal

Adaptive coping

Maladaptive

coping

Demands

Outcomes:

satisfaction

Perform.

Health

Affective

outcomes:

Distress

Eustress

The Transactional model of stress (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984)

Dr C Gibbons

slide8

Most measures of stress measure it in terms of degrees of distress.

  • This ignores the possibility that such sources of stress might also act as potential for good stress/eustress as well as distress.
  • Rating stressors as hassles and uplifts enables one to do this.
  • Earlier research suggests measuring both is informative e.g. perceived stressors between those ‘at risk’ v ‘not at risk’ of developing a stress-related illness (Gibbons, 2009)

Dr C Gibbons

method
Method
  • Questionnaire measuring sources of stress
  • (items from NSS), key predictors (Secondary appraisal), and outcome measures (intellectual motivation and course satisfaction)

Dr C Gibbons

discussion intellectual motivation
Discussion – intellectual motivation
  • The more the work-home interface was rated as uplifting the higher were scores on intellectual motivation…
  • The more social opportunities provided with the university were rated as a hassle the higher were scores on intellectual motivation…
  • As ‘openness’ increased intellectual motivation declined…
  • The more learning resources were rated as uplifting the lower were scores in intellectual motivation…

Dr C Gibbons

discussion course satisfaction
Discussion – course satisfaction
  • The more teaching was rated as uplifting the higher were scores on course satisfaction.
  • When course content and structure were rated as uplifting, satisfaction increased and declined when rated as a hassle.
  • The more social opportunities were rated as a hassle the lower were scores on course satisfaction

Dr C Gibbons

slide15

Intellectual motivation and course satisfaction negatively correlated (rho = -.634)…

  • The usual limitations associated with a survey approach have to be noted…

Dr C Gibbons

recommendations
Recommendations
  • Reviewing a course and/or rating a university through course satisfaction ratings provides an incomplete picture. Multiple measures need to be adopted.
  • The prevalence of hassle ratings over uplifting ones and the absence of personality, self-efficacy and coping as strong predictors suggests the demands of the first year are perceived as disproportionately high.
  • Therefore build on existing strategies to support students

Dr C Gibbons