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The Industrial Revolution. 1750-1870. From slower, more expensive production by hand to quicker, less costly production by machine. From work at home to work at a factory. Changes in Manufacturing Methods during 18 th Century. Characteristics of the Old Industrial Revolution.

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characteristics of the old industrial revolution
Characteristics of the Old Industrial Revolution
  • The invention of the 1st complex machines and building of the 1st factories
  • The development of steam as a source of power, and its applications
  • The expansion of the output of basic materials….coal, iron, steel
  • The introduction of new methods of transportation and communication
historical method of production
Historical Method of Production
  • By the late Middle Ages the manufacture of goods was controlled by trade or artisan guilds
  • The guilds were organizations that set standards for their craft.
  • Typically they restricted the number of workers, hours worked, types of tools that were used, etc
  • As a result, the output of goods was limited
the shift
The Shift
  • Along with the growth of towns, the re-emergence of trade, and the population growth came a demand for more goods than the guilds could produce.
  • In the 16th century, the English textile industry defied the guilds by using the “putting out” system
  • How did it work?:
    • individuals at home would be provided with the raw materials
    • get paid for creating finished goods (ex. spinning raw wool or cotton into thread)
why did the textile industry become the 1 st major industry to adopt the factory system
Why did the textile industry become the 1st major industry to adopt the factory system?
  • Demand for textiles
    • cotton (which was much more comfortable than the traditional wool).
  • The constant thread shortage focused attention on ways of improving spinning methods.
  • The amount of cotton yarn produced in England in 1790 was 10 times the amount produced in 1770
  • Cotton goods became much cheaper and more available. {use of underwear}
  • Wages for textile workers increased greatly
  • Changes in demographics: rural agrarian life gave way to urban industrial life
why did britain take the lead in industrialization
Why did Britain take the lead in Industrialization?
  • Natural resources:
    • Raw materials like coal (steam) and iron ore
    • Colonies (Mercantilism)
  • Transportation:
    • Harbors
    • Canals
    • Railroads
Agricultural changes:
    • enclosure movement
  • Population: G.B. had
    • skilled workers
    • wealthy capitalists
  • Government:
    • Stable
    • organized banking system
    • protected industries.
how did machines affect work
How did machines affect work?
  • Less time to learn a craft
  • Preferences for younger workers – Why?
  • Women and children increasingly hired – Why?
  • Who gets left out?
wage system
Wage System
  • Old System: Domestic
    • Worked unsupervised in your home
    • Turned in finished products for money
  • New System: Factory
    • Supervised division of labor
    • Paid by the number of hours worked, or the amount of goods produced
why wages
Why Wages?
  • Allowed owners to produce goods as cheaply as possible (could adjust wages)
  • What determined wages?
    • Oversupply of workers lowered wages
    • What people could earn doing other jobs
    • Males earned more
    • Best way to good wages: Acquire skills
factory rules and regulations
Factory Rules and Regulations
  • Set break and lunch times, no off times
  • 14 hours a day, 6 days a week
  • Factories were poorly ventilated, dirty, unsanitary, and usually without any safety precautions, especially with machines
average age at death for different social groups
Average Age at Death for Different Social Groups

Agricultural area, Tin-Mining center, Industrial Centers

child labor
Was a necessity in many families

Children as young as five were sent to work in mines, cotton mills

Little protection

No real protection until 1833 with Britain’s Factory Act, which called for enforcement of child labor laws and inspections of factories

Child Labor
living conditions
Living Conditions
  • Tenement lifestyle was the most common
  • Even in 1840, between 40,000 and 50,000 laborers in Manchester lived in cellars
  • Exposure to poor sanitation, diseases
  • Standard of living improved
    • wages slowly increased
    • inexpensive consumer goods became available to laborers
rise of the middle class
Rise of the Middle Class
  • As economic and political power moved from agriculture to manufacturing, a middle class formed (lawyers, doctors, bankers, merchants, manufacturers)
  • The new middle class:
    • Dressed differently
    • Lived in different communities
    • Gained prestige and political power
    • Like the upper classes, the rising middle class could now afford things like…

Use supply and demand, natural laws

Profit motive


Laissez Faire

Decision Making

Free enterprise

Supply and demand



Privately owned property


Equitable distribution of resources

Provide for basic needs


Controls major resources and industries

Decision Making

Made by the government for good of everyone


Smaller businesses owned privately

Government makes bigger economic decisions


Karl Marx:

History of class struggle

Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat

Tribes, Slavery, Feudalism, Capitalism, Communism

Classless society, total equality

Government will eventually wither away


Stresses cooperation

Owns businesses

Set prices

Decision Making

Economic decisions made by government


Common ownership of property

Views capitalism as a threat